64 terms

APHG Chapter 8

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Political Geography
A subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface. It is concerned with why political spaces emerge in the places that they do and with how the character of those spaces affects social, political, economic, and environmental understandings and practices.
territoriality
In political geography, a country's or more local community's sense of propertyand attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended
sovereignty
a principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states
territorial integrity
the right of a state to defend soverign territory against incurrsion from other states
Peace of Westphalia
Peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years' War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security
mercantilism
in a general sense, associated with the promotion of commercialism and trade. More specifically, a protectionist policy of European states during the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries that promoted a state's economic position in the contest with other countries. The aquisition of gold and silver and the maintenance of a favorable trade balance were central to the policy
democracy
government based on the principle that the people are the ultimate soveriegn and have the final say over what happens within the state
multinational state
state with more than one nation within its borders
multistate nation
nation that stretches across borders and across states
stateless nation
nation that does not have a state
colonialism
Rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place. Although often established and maintained through political structures, colonialism also creates unequal cultural and economic relations. Because of the magnitude and impact of European colonial project of the last few centuries, the term is generally understood to refer to that particular colonial endeavor
scale
Representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization. In cartography, the ratio of map distance to ground distance; indicated on a map as a bar graph, representative fraction, and/or verbal statement
capitalism
economic model wherein people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit
commodification
The process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy.
core
processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery processes in the world-economy
periphery
processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries and less technology; and generate less wealth than core processes in the world economy
semi-periphery
places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery
ability
In the context of political power, the capacity of a state to influence other states or achieve its goals through diplomatic, economic, and militaristic means.
centripetal
forces that tend to unify a country- such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared idealogical objectives, and a common faith
centrifugal
Forces that tend to divide a country-such as international religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
unitary state
a nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state
federal state
A political-territorial system wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interests-defense, foreign affairs, and the like-yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities and to have their own laws, policies, and customs in certain spheres.
devolution
the process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
territorial representation
system wherein each representative is elected from a territorially defined district
reapportionment
process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
splitting
In the context of determining representative districts, the process by which the majority and minority populations are spread evenly across each of the districts to be created therein ensuring control by the majority of each of the districts; as opposed to the result of majority-minority districts
majority-minority districts
in the context of determining representative districts, the process by which a majority of the population is from the minority
gerrymandering
Redistricting for advantage, or the practice of dividing areas into electoral districts to give one political party an electoral majority in a large number of districts while concentrating the voting strength of the opposition in as few districts as possible
physical-political boundary
Political boundary defined and delimited (and occasionally demarcated) by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape such as a river or the crest ridges of a mountain range.
heartland theory
A geopolitical hypothesis, proposed by British geographer Halford Mackinder during the first two decades of the twentieth century, that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world. Ackinder further proposed that since Eastern Europe controlled access to the Eurasian interior, its ruler would command the vast "heartland" to the east
unilateralism
world order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process
supranational organization
A venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. The European Union is one such organization
boundary
vertical plane between states that cuts through the rocks below, and the airspace above the surface
critical geopolitics
process by which geopoliticians deconstruct and focus on explaining the underlying spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of politicians
human territoriality
A term associated with the work of Robert Sack that describes the efforts of human societies to influence events and achieve social goals by exerting, and attempting to enforce, control over specific geographical areas.
boundary
something that indicated bounds of limits
boundary definition
Political boundaries on Earth's surface are determined by the use of man-made structures such as fences and walls, i.e. United States and Mexico
boundary demarcation
There are no physical signs on Earth's surface to show that a boundary exists, i.e., Saudi Arabia/Oman
boundary dispute
when two or more states disagree about the demarcation of a political boundary
compact state
The distance from the geographic center of the area to any point on the boundary does not vary greatly, i.e., Hungary.
elongated state
A state that is geographicly long and narrow, i.e., Chile
enclave
portion of a state that is totally surrounded by another state, i.e., Armenian Nagorno-Karabagh
exclave
small portion of land that is separated from the main state, i.e., Kaliningrad/Russia
fragmented state
state split in many pieced, i.e., Philippines and Indonesia
landlocked state
state not having direct access to an ocean, i.e., Bolivia
Perforated state
state that totally surrounds another state, i.e., Lesotho/South Africa
Prorupt state
state having a portion of a territory that is elongated, i.e., Thailand
microstate
state that is extremely small, i.e., San Marino
nation-state
political unit comprising a clearly delineated territory where the population shared a common history and culture, i.e., Japan
Subsoil
below the surface of Earth. Boundaries are vertical planes, not merely lines on a map
frontier
zone where no state exercises political control i.e., Antarctica and portions of Saudi Arabia
physical boundary
major physical features such as deserts, mountain ranges. and/or water bodies that serve as a means of separation, i.e., Great Lakes, Pureness Mountains, and Sahara Desert
geometric boundary
straight lines that serve as political boundaries that are unrelated to physical and/or cultural differences, i.e., United States/Canadian border
Cultural political boundary
political boundary that separates different cultures, i.e., former Yugoslavia
religious boundary
boundary that separates different religions, i.e., Northern Ireland/Ireland
language boundary
boundary that separates different language speakers, i.e., traditionally man countries in Europe such as England, France, Spain, and Portugal
genetic boundary
how boundaries evolve over time
antecedent boundary
boundary that was created before the present day cultural landscape developed, i.e., Malaysia/Indonesia on the island of Borneo
subsequent boundary
boundaries that are created as a result of long-term process, i.e., Vietnam/China
Super imposed boundary
boundary that has been forced upon the inhabitants of an area to solve a problem and/or conflict, i.e., Indonesia/Papua New Guinea
relict boundary
boundary that ceases to exist, however the imprint of the boundary still remains of the cultural landscape, i.e., North/South Vietnam
fortified boundary
when a state constructs physical barriers along a boundary to either keep people in or out of its territory, i.e., Great Wall of China, Berlin Wall, earth berms along the Morocco/Spanish Sahara border
nation
geographic area that is dominated by a large population that shares a common history and culture, i.e., Kurds and Palestinians
state
political entity that maintains status as an independent country