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UNIT 8 South Asia content
Terms in this set (315)
What is south asia separated from the rest of asia by?
why is south asia called a subcontinent?
because it is seperated from the rest of asia by mountains
what is a subcontinent?
a large distinct landmass that is joined to a continent
what are the three main bodies of water that surround south asia?
arabian sea(west), indian ocean(south) bay of bengal(north)
in terms of landscape, how does the north vary with the south?
north has some of the highest mts in the world with terraced foothills high desert plateaus and rich valleys. south is older eroded mountains and flat plateaus
According to continental drift, where was south asia many years ago?
attached to africa
How were the himalayas made?
when the subcontinent broke away from africa, the force of the collision with asia created the mts
what three mountains chains create the border from south asia and the rest of asia?
hindu kush, karakoram, himalaya
How did invaders used to get into south asia?
through small passes such as the khyber pass between pakistan and afghanistan
which countries were protected by outsiders by the himalays until the 1990s?
nepal and bhutan
What is at the foot of the himalayas?
wide fertile plains that are watered by the regions three major rivers- indus, brahmaputra, ganges
where do 1/10 of the worlds people live?
in the crowded northern area under the himalayas called the ganges plain
describe the chota nagpur?
a high tableland of forests
what other mountains did the collision between the subcontinent and asia create?
which mountain range divides india by north and south?
what does the vindhya range do?
separates the distinct cultures that have developed in india
what are the two chains of eroded mountains in the south?
describe the deccan plateau?
once covered with lava, know has rich black soil
what effect does the western ghats have?
prevents yearly rainy winds from reaching the deccan plateau making it arid or dry
why is the deccan plateau extremely arid or dry?
because of the western ghats restricting yearly rainy winds
which plateau receives the rain that the deccan plateau does not?
describe the karantaka plateau?
lush and green hills
what is the key to life in south asia?
what are the three major rivers systems of south asia?
indus, brahmaputra, ganges
what do each of the major river systems do?
carry fertile soil from mountain slopes onto their flood plains as the rivers swell with seasonal rains
where does the indus mainly flow?
what does the indus mainly water?
orchards of peaches and apples
what is the significance of the indus river?
the indus river valley is known as the cradle of ancient india
what do people use the brahmaputra for?
it is a major inland waterway and ships can navigate the river from the bay of bengal far inland to india, also provides bangladesh with 50% of its power
which river provides bangladesh with 50% of its power?
what is the most important river of the region?
describe the ganges throughout the year?
fed by water from snowcapped peaks, retains its size throughout the year even during the hot dry season from april to june
what happens to the ganges during the summer monsoon period?
heavy rains can cause devastating floods
why is the ganges river sacred to hindus?
named after hindu goddess ganga
what has happened to most of the ganges plain?
almost all of it has been cleared of grasslands and forests to make way for crops
which crops are grown in the ganges plain?
rice, sesame, sugar cane, jute, and beans
where is india most agriculturally productive area?
the ganges plain
what is the worlds longest alluvial plain?
what is an alluvial plain?
an area of fertile soil deposited by river flood waters
where is indias most densely populated area?
what is a challenge concerning natural resources?
the large population and fragile environments
what do the rivers of south asia provide?
drinking water, transportation, hydroelectric power, fish for local use and export
why does water resource management challenge south asia?
rivers cross national borders
how are some countries working together for water management?
india funded a hydroelectric project in bhutan in turn for some of the energy generated there
why do countries build dams?
to provide hydroelectric power and to open up new farmlands by ensuring consistent levels of water for irrigation
what is true about nepal in terms of water management?
has potential for great hydroelectricity because of mountains and waterfalls
why are there also drawbacks to dams?
in india the dams are met with resistance because of the threat to flood existing settlements, in pakistan, one of the largest dams in the world, tabela dam, will soon be unusable due to silt from the indus river
where are petroleum reserves known to be?
india northwest coast, near ganges delta, northern pakistan
in terms of oil, what is true about south asia?
depends on imported oil
which sea may eventually provide oil?
where are natural gas fields found?
southern pak, ganges delta, bangladesh
what energy sources does south asia mainly depend on?
hydroelectricity, fuel from wood, and coal
what minerals does india have?
leading exporter of iron ore, 90% of worlds mica
where is one of the worlds largest producers of graphite?
what minerals does nepal contain?
mica, small amounts of copper
what is a threat in terms of timber in nepal?
severe over cutting occurs, and could result in massive soil erosion
what is the nepal gov doing to protect timber?
implementing conservation plans
which country has banned timber exports in order to save its rain forests?
which countries have considerable timber?
nepal, bhutan, india
where are tropical rain forests found?
along west coast of india, near ganges delta in bangladesh, southern sri lanka
what vegetation do the rain forests of sri lanka, southwest india, and bay of bengal have?
ebony trees, lush vines, orchids
what vegetation do the western ghat rainforests have?
tropical coniferous and deciduous trees
what vegetation grows in the rain forests of bangladesh?
bamboo, mango, and palm trees
what is significant about the sundarbans?
worlds largest protected mangrove forest
where is the tropical savanna climate found?
surrounding the central indian steppe and also in eastern sri lanka
describe the weather of the grasslands and tropical moist deciduous forests of the savanna?
experience wet and dry seasons
describe the sri lanka forests?
evergreen forests and moist deciduous forests give way to drier grasslands at higher elevations
where is the band of humid subtropical climate and describe it?
nepal bhutan, bangladesh, northeastern part of india. temperate forests on borders of these countries
where is the coldest climate region?
along the northern edge
describe the climates of the mountains?
snow never disappears from mountains tops, at highest elevation little vegetation can survive, farther down slopes= milder more temperate, upper area of temperate zone= coniferous and hardwood, grasslands+bamboo on himalayan foothills
where is the desert climate?
along the lower indus river
describe the vegetation of the great indian desert.
desert scrub, low thorny trees, grasses, some areas have livestock and irrigation, most wasteland
what surrounds the desert
describe steppe climates of south asia
few trees in semiarid grassland that surrounds great indian desert, NW india= less 2o in of rain per year, another steppe on deccan plateau because ghats block rain, dry deciduous forests cover vast stretches of interior of india
what are the three distinct seasons
hot-late feb to june, wet- june to september, cool- october to late feb
what causes the three distinct seasons
what are monsoons
what happens in terms of monsoons during the hot season?
warm temps heat the air, which rises and triggers a change in wind direction, moist ocean air then movies in from the south and southwest bringing monsoon rains
where are monsoon rains heaviest?
eastern south asia
explain the process of the monsoon rains in eastern south asia?
when the rains sweep over the ganges-brahmaputra delta, the himalaya block them from moving north. result=rains move west to ganges plain, bringing rainfall needed for crops
what are mixed blessings in south asia?
high temps of hot season, and heavy rains of wet season
what is the good and bad of high temps?
good- allot farmers to produce crops(rice that people depend on) year round as long as water supplies are good, bad- extreme heat can result in evaporation and dried out nutrient poor soils
what is the good and the bad of monsoon rains?
rainfall water crops, but outside monsoon= may receive little or no rain
what places do not receive the monsoon rains?
deccan and western pak
what is an example of the good and bad of monsoon rains
when bangladesh plants rice and ganges plains are planting winter crops, others are droughted
how can too much rain be a problem?
in bang, floodings kill people and livestock, leav thousands homeless, ruins crops
a storm with high winds and heavy rains
how much of the worlds population lives in india?
besides the size, what is astonishing about the population?
the diversity, resulted in both tolerance and conflict
what are most indians descended from?
dravidians, lived in south of india for 8000 years and the aryans who invaded from central asia more than 3000 years ago
describe the populations of india?
dravidians, aryans, descendants of british and Portuguese colonists, refugees from tibet and sri lanka
what are the major religions in india?
hindu, muslim, buddhist, sikhs, jains or christians
a group that defines ones occupation and social position
what do hindus also identify themselvs by?
how do most indians identify themselves?
why did pakistan, and later bangladesh, become separate countries
because of their distinct muslim and ethnic heritages
how much of pakistan and bangladesh practice islam?
explain the religion and the effects in pakistan and bangladesh?
islam overpowers everything else is pakistan, and in bangladesh most people are bengali- ethnic background they share with some of their hindu neighbors in the indian state of bengal
what are sri lankas two major ethnic groups?
buddhist sinhalese, hindu tamils
which groups in sri lanka are the majority and control the gov?
what is the problem in sri lanka?
hindu tamils want their own state in northern sri lanka
what is the effect of the buddhist sinhalese against the hindu tamils?
almost 1 mil driven from home by ethnic violence- one of largest numbers ever recorded, violence has disrupted economy and demoralized people
which two countries have a population that differs in appearance from other south asian countries and why?
bhutan and nepal, because their ancestors come from mongolia
describe the ethnicity of bhutan
fairly evenly distributed between bhote and tibetan ancestry
describe the ethnicity of nepal
home to complex variety, most sherpas- mountaineering skills,
what is significant about south asia population density?
seven times the world average
what have slowed population growth in some countries?
educational and economic assistance efforts
when will south asia double rate be formed?
what factors have an impact on the number of people the land can support?
climate, vegetation, physical features
what is the population density of the great indian desert and the mountainous highlands of western pakistan?
what happens to population density in the north
population decreases as the elevation increases
where are the highest concentrations of people found?
on the fertile ganges plain, and along the monsoon watered coasts of indian peninsula
why do many people live where rice is grown?
abundant and important food source
what are the densities in the agriculturally productive areas?
what is the second most populated country?
although bang has good soil and improved farming techniques, what is true?
still has difficulty feeding population
what is the gov doing to slow bang's growth?
giving women small loans to start their own businesses, to encourage them to have fewer children
where do most of south asians live?
what is south asias most urbanized country?
how many people in pakistan live in rural areas?
describe rural life for south asians.
changed little over years, farm, live in villages, struggle to grow enough food for families, part of crops usually go to owners of fields they farm
describe the nomadic or semi nomadic people of south asia
usually large extended families, travel the desert and highlands and herd camels, goats or yaks
why have there been more people migrating to urban areas?
better jobs, higher wages
what happens as more urban populations grow?
resources are strained and facilities, such as schools and hospitals
what are problems resulting from rapid urbanization?
housing shortages, overcrowding, pollution
what is significant about south asia cities?
among the worlds most densely populated
indais main port on arabian sea, largest city, leading industrial, financial, and filmmaking center
which city is a thriving port city on a branch of the ganges river?
which city is the center of indias iron and steel industries
describe the buildings and transportation of kolkata?
crumbling public buildings, high rise slums, also modern office towers, modern subway system that people use daily to get to jobs in city
which city is indias third largest city
chain of closely linked metropolitan aeas
which city is a megalopolis?
describe the area of delhi
encompasses the old city, and new delhi- modern capital built by british colonial rulers in early 1900s.
who are people living on the streets in temporary settlements called jhuggi bastis and which city does occur in?
pavement dwellers, delhi
which city is the worlds second most desnely populated urban area after lagos?
describe the main cities of pakistan
many people drawn to islamabad where new housing projects struggle to keep up with a growing population, and to booming port city og karachi
what were the achievements of early south asian?
building and trade
what did the indus river valley culture do?
writing system, strong central gov, thriving overseas trade, may have built worlds first cities, sophisticated plumbing, sanitation systems, and other tech
why were the indus river valley cities destroyed?
most likely lost to flooding or drought as indus river changes course
How did the aryans come to the region?
as indus valley crumbled, group of hunters and herders entered form northwest, settlled down and began to farm
who left sacred writings called the vedas?
what is the significance of the vedas?
reveal aryan ideas about religion and social structure, society organized into four groups- priests, warriors, artisans and farmers, and enslaved people.
what was the social structure of the aryans?
first was flexible, people could intermarry and change professions, but then developed into complex system of ranks that dictated from birth ones social status
what was the system of classes made by the aryans called, and did it stick around?
"caste" and yes still influential in india today
what is the key to understanding south asias history and culture?
understanding the basic beliefs of hinduism and buddhism
which religion grew out of aryan culture and religion?
what is hinduism?
both a religion and a way of life
what is dharma, and which religion uses it?
moral duty, hindu
what is reincarnation?
rebirth as another living being, process occurs repeatedly until the individual overcomes personal weaknesses and earthly desires, then leaves cycle of rebirth and becomes reunited with eternal being
what is the law of karma, and which religion?
good deeds-actions in accord with ones dharma- move one toward reuniting with eternal being, while bad deeds chain a person to cycle of rebirth
what do hindus believe about dharma?
every person needs to carry out his or her dharma
what are the being/s that hindus worship?
worship many gods or goddesses which are often seen as different forms of the one eternal being.
how do hindus view other religions?
usually tolerant towards other religions
explain the story of siddhartha gautama
in noble family, had luxury, but became aware of human suffering so went on pilgrimage with years of meditation and spiritual seeking. then perceived what he understood to be the true nature of human existence
what does buddha mean, who is buddha?
awakened one, siddhartha gautama
what did the buddha teach?
people suffer because too attached to material things that are temporary, think clearly, work diligently, show compassion for all living things in order to escape desire and suffering and to be liberated from endless rebirth
what is nirvana and which religion?
state of insight, calm, and joy, buddhism
how is buddhism like hinduism?
developed system of religious rituals, but buddhism mainly a practical way to achieve human happiness
why did women and lower class like buddhism?
rejected strict social system
what is the history of buddhism?
moved to other countries besides india, in nepal and bhutan new forms of buddhism emerged that blended hindu rituals with local practices, in india hinduism absorbed buddhism
what were the three new empires that took over after the aryans(put in order)
mauryan empire, gupta empire, mogul empire
what were characteristics of the mauryan empire?
ruled all but southernmost parts of indian penin., asoka, last/greatest emperor promoted buddhism and nonviolence
what religion was the gupta empire?
describe the achievements of the gupta empire
most advanced in world, science, tech and arts flourished, arabic numerals introduced to europe by arab traders
where did the muslims take over?
northern india by 1100s
what was the effect of the muslim mogul empire?
dominated indian subcontinent, many people converted to islam
who were the final invaders?
who were the fist europeans to arrive, and who were they followed by?
Portuguese followed by british and french
How did britian become the major european power?
expelled french, and portuguese still had some strongholds but mainly british
hindu word for empire
what did the britsh call their indian holds?
what did the british do to south asia?
introduced the educational system, built railroads, and developed civil service
who led the independence fight for india?
how did ghandi get independence?
boycotting british products and staging peaceful demonstrations, nonviolent methods
what did ghandi want for the people?
seek self rule, end rigid social system, promote local industry, weaving and spinning
what religion was ghandi?
what name did ghandi get?
when did india get independence
what happened when india got independence?
land became two new countries- hindu majority= india, muslim majority= pakistan(east and west)
what was the effect of dividing india?
split man famalies, hindus in pak moved to india, muslims in india moved to pak, and violence throughout
why was ghandi killed?
killed by hindu nationalist opposed to division of india
which two countries were always free from british rule?
nepal and bhutan
what happened to sri lanka when it got independence
went from ceylon- to sri lanka
what happened with the two parts of pakistan?
ast revolted against west and became the country of bangladesh, west just remained pakistan
what are conflicts that are still there between india and pakistan?
jamma and kashmir are disputed, both india and pak have nuclear weapons
what is internal conflict in india?
hindu vs muslim
what is the conflict in sri lanka?
tamil rebels wanting separate state
which country is often called the worlds largest democracy
what is indias actual government
federal parliamentary republic
explain the history of indias gov
nehru fam ruled, jawaharlal prime minister until death and daughter and grandson led country but ethnic and religious conflict led to assasination of daughter and grandson
what is the affect of the bad nehru family history
prime ministers have had less influence than the nehru dynasty
what has made indias democracy more secure?
workable parliamentary institutions
what is paks gov
parliamentary republic but instability and military rule have prevailed since 1971
describe pakistans gov history
had benazir bhutto woman prime minister but had corruption so now controlled by general pervz musharraf, who promised to have more democratic gov
what gov is sri lanka and bangladesh?
what is the problem with gov for sri lanka and bangladesh
political/ethnic rivalries made stable political rule difficult. after indie both had political assassinations or military takeovers
what is present today in bangladesh and sri lanka for gov
both have new prime ministers and democratic rule has been strengthened
which two countries have traditional forms of government
bhutan and nepal, trying to modernize but monarchies trying to keep power
which country had a sultan?
maldives, now republic
how many languages are recognized by the indian government
what is the main language of india
where is english primarily spoken, why
parts of south asia that were once under british rule, common language of international business and tourism
what do most languages spoken in pakistan, bangladesh, and northern india fall into, and where are their roots?
indo european, from aryans invasders
pakistans official language
offical languages of nepal, sri lanka, maldives
nepali, sinhalese, divehi
what is sanskrit and what is the purpose
classical aryan language of the vedas, still used for literary, religious, and musical purposes
what do most of the population in southern india and sri lanka speak
dravidian family, roots go back to earliest inhabitants of south asia -tamil, telugu, kannada, malayalam
what do the languages of bhutan and nepal reflect/
the countries close ties to east asia
where are most hindus?
india and nepal (lesser in bhutan, sri lanka, pakistan, and bangladesh)
where are the most muslims?
pakistan, bangalasdesh, and maldives
although buddhism is not a strong religion in south asia, where is it practice?
sri lanka, bhutan and nepal
what are four other small practiced religions
jainism, sikhism, christianity, and zoroastrianism
founded by mahariva, hindu teacher, india=3 mil, practice strict nonviolence, believe every living thing has a soul
founded by guru, or teacher, anmed anak, teaches one god and that good deeds and meditation bring release fromt he cycle of reincarnation. 20 mil live in northW india, many want indie state
where do most christians live?
concentrated in urban areas in southern and northeastern india
where do most zoroastrians live and what is their history?
mumbai, followers known as parsis, whose religious and cultural heritage comes from ancient persia, not many left
what are examples of religion in daily life?
in bhutan and nepal have prayer flags and prayer wheels, cows roam with garland and merigold, shrines of sri lanka, muslim women wear chador, monks chant mantras, sadhus dress in bright yellow robes and roam from temple to temple
what are mantras
what are sadhus
hindu holy men in india
what is the status of the government and economies of south asia?
what is true about the life expectancies?
generally lower than other industrialized countries
which country has the lowest life expectancy and what is it
what was once a threat in the region, but has been brought under control?
tropical diseases such as malaria but not widespread anymore
what are some health issues that threaten the region today?
south asia + southeast asia have second highest rate of HIV and AIDS in the world
although improved farming techniques and government policies now make it theoretically possible for most of south asia to feed properly, what is true
poor nutrition is still problem
what is the problem with protein
1/3 of people too poor to buy protein so eat soy based tofu or beans
what are religious dietary restrictions?
muslims no pork, hindus no beef, jains/buddhists vegetarian
what is likely to happen with the rise of improved education?
rise of standard of living
what are the focuses for education of the governments?
raising literacy rates, extending educational opportunities to women and members of lower class
what kind of farming do most people in south asia practice?
subsistence, which relies on labor intensive methods
what does subsistence farming encompass?
labor intensive methods, digging sticks, hand plows, sewing seed by hand, may have to hand carry water for miles, use animal power- water buffalo, yaks, camels, elephants
name the risks of subsistence farming, but also name the benefit?
depends on changeable factors like rain, may lose entire crops due to drought or wild animals, but allows them to be economically independent
based on what do farms vary?
geographic historic and cultural factors
describe the farms of nepal and bhutan
farmers practice terrace farming, making use of every inch of arable land on the steep slopes
describe paks, bangs and india farms
pak has orchards, bang people work in water to grow rice, india has small farms
what is different about the farms of sri lanka?
huge rubber, tea, and coconut plantations
how did plantations in sri lanka begin?
britsh/ dutch, british moved plantations from india to sri lanka when indians demanded better working conditions
what is the problem with sri lankas plantations?
they leave little room for food to be grown for the actual population, so large quantities of basic foods, like rice, must be imported
farm products grown for sale or export
what are cash crops of south asia?
sri lanka- tea, rubber, coconut. india- cashews, coffee, and tea, bananas india and pak= cotton, bangladesh- jute, steppes- citrus fruits, chilies, spices
what is a challenge with cash crops?
balancing the physical needs of hungry people with the economic needs of growing countries
what is jute, which country has this as a major cash crop?
a fiber used to make string, rope, and cloth, bangladesh, account for large part of income, called golden crop, demand decreasing
what is the major food crop of south asia, where does it grow?
rice. tropical rain forest of ganges delta and along the peninsulas western malabar coast
which country is second in the world in rice production, and which country is fourth
what is the main crop of the ganges and the indus river valley?
what are farmers being taught for agricultural improvements
modern tech, methods for irrigation, pest control, fertilization to increase production, more planting cycles
what are examples of the agricultural improvements in action?
bangladesh doing more planting cycles where farmers can usually do up to three rice crops per year. nepal farmers are planting and harvesting winter wheat following the rice harvest
what two things have increased agricultural production?
education and governmental efforts ex- researches in bhutan helped establish fruit orchards, gov funded irrigation systems and high rice prices encourage sri lankan farmers to grow more food crops
sought to increase and diversify crop yields in the worlds developing countries
what are aspects of the green revolution
carefully managed irrigation, fertilizers, and high yielding varieties of crops
what is the effect of the green revolution on india?
wheat and rice production has greatly increased, now ablt to store and even export grain
why does the green revolution not work in some places
monsoon rains allow only one planting cycle per year. modernization costly, irrigation and mechanization requires fuel, not enough petroleum, must burn biomass, costs too high
what is biomass
plant materials and animal dung
why do people burn biomass?
only energy source
what are some significant mining resources
bhutan=coal, lead, marble, zinc, copper. sri lanka= graphite, pakistan and india= oil reserves, pakistan has much of counrtys energy needs
how has the government helped encourage deep sea fishing?
building processing plants and giving aid to oceangoing ships and fleets
what are some important fishing aspects?
pakistan, and sri lanka export shrimp, lobsters, and fresh and dried fish
why is bhutans gov moving slowly ahead in industrialization since they have been closed off from the world?
to preserve their natural and cultural resources
what happened to indias economy after it gained independence?
became socialist, emphasized central planning, wanted private industry, many large industries were placed under direct government control, other partner ships between private owners and the government
what happened when indias economy began to slow down?
saw limitations but change came slowly and in late 1980s give still regulated or operated mining, banking, insurance, transportation, manufacturing, and construction
what pushed india to a major economic reform?
what did the indian government due to change the economy in their reform?
deregulated many industries, turned over gov run companies to private ownership
what was the result of indias economic reform?
sparked economic growth that created middle class
what was the result of the middle class
demand for consumer goods expanded rapidly
what kind of industry do most south asians work in?
what are some of the products of the textile industry?
silk, cotton, wool, and prized woolds of cashmere and pashmina in jammu and kashmir
what are some other light industries?
bicycles, shoes, carpets, bicycle parts
what are usually characteristics of light industries
in factories employing fewer than 100 people and generally use traditional production techniques
where do the light industries come from
cottage industries- businesses that employ workers in their homes
what is the result of cottage industries
provide jobs encourage traditional crafts, and supply needed export income
why ghandi carry around a spinning wheel?
show india get strength from cottage industries and he only dressed in khadi traditional homespun cotton fabric
what is south asias heavy industry geared towards?
what are some aspects of heavy industry>
iron, steel, cement, heavy machinery, india, pak, bangladesh recycle iron and steel in a unique industry called ship breaking
dismantle aging or damaged ships, melted down parts are reforged into new iron and steel, employs about 1.3 million people
which two countries have benefitted from service industries the most?
india mostly, and pakistan
what service industries benefit india
whole sale and retail trade and government services, also gov provides a variety of social services to people in health education and public administration
what are some new benefits of the high technology industry?
millions of indians use internet, bangalor and hyderbad known as indias silicon valley, worlds second largest exporter of software, has potential to be developer of computer hardware, has much copper
what are some attractions of south asia that bring in tourists?
nepal for hiking and himalayas, indias temples and destivals
what is preventing tourism in the region?
conflicts such as the buddhist sinhalese vs hindu tamils, and border disputes between india and pakistan have all but removed tourists from kashmir
what are some governments doing to protect threatened natural and cultural resources, give examples?
regulated tourism, bhutan only gives out 5000 tourist visas, maldives only open certain islands so strict islamic peoples are not disturbed
what is ecotourism and how could it be used?
form of tourism that encourages responsible interaction with the environment and endangered species, to support preservation efforts while contributing to south asian economies
what is a key to successful resource management?
sustainable development- using resource at a rate that does not deplete them for future generations
although buddhist, hindu and jain promote respect for all lving things, what is true?
many of south asias animals have become endangered through contact with the regions growing human population
what are some ways animals have become endangered?
deforestation and irrigation have reduced animals natural habitats, driving them into areas where people live, been overhunted by tourists or farmers and herders seeking to protect their crops and flocks
what are some way government is trying to help with wildlife preservation?
wildlife reserves, passing laws controlling hinting and logging, also trying to give economic incentive
why doe farmers want to peach tigers and elephants?
crops threatened by foraging elephants and they realize they can make huge profit by selling hides of bengal tigers
what should governments do to eliminate poaching
encourage people to respect wildlife
what is a major problem with water in south asia?
lack of access to clean water
what is the most developed country in the region?
although india is the most developed country in the region, what is true about its water cleanliness?
80% of pop without access to sanitation facilities and must rely on water that is polluted by human waste and chemical runoff,
where is the dirty water situation worse?
bangladesh and pakistan
what is a way to balance the extremes of drought and flooding that a region may be enduring at the same time, and why?
building dams because they can change the course of rivers, reroute water for irrigation, and control flooding by holding water in reserve for times of drought
what are the drawbacks of dams?
they trap silt that would otherwise flow downriver to enrich the soil, reservoirs can have bacteria, source of disease, building it usually results in flooding of surrounding areas- displaces villages disrupts balance of wildlife and vegetation
what are benefits of the narmada river dam?
irrigation of millions of acres of land that has severe drought and hydroelectricity
what are the drawbacks of the narmada river?
farmers may be uprooted and forced to resetlle in cities or temporary camps, opposition= environmentalists and people whose villages will be flooded
why has deforestation accelerated?
driven by growing population and increasing interaction of humans with their environment
why have forests been destroyed
commercial timber industries, human settlement, slash and burn agriculture, livestock feeds on leaves slowly killing trees, burning of biomass
what is the most damaging aspect that is killing forests?
burning biomass, including the wood from trees, for fuel
what is an example of the effects of deforestation?
mangrove forests of bangladeshs sundarbans have provided a barrier against erosion caused by cyclones, but as the mangrove trees are cut, protection is gone
how do the lose of rain forests affect the region?
they grow in poor soil, hold roots in place, keep surrounding areas cool, but as they disappear soil erodes, rains produce floods, and temperatures rise
what does chipko mean
what are some of the reforestation efforts?
build on regions respect for trees, chipko nurseries been created, gov ban on timber production in himalaya forests
what is the worlds fourth most polluted city and why?
delhi, india because as industrialization increases, so does air pollution
what are meterologists doing, and what could the effect be?
studying monsoon patterns in the bay of bengal, hope to reduced devastation by storms, ability to predict storms and intensity could make enormous differences
what are geographers doing and what might their effect be?
studying erosion in coastal deltas of bang because bengali people live on thin crusted islands formed from silt and silt may be moved so average person displaced 6-7 times, if can find solution, it will improve peoples lives
what is the conflict of kashmir?
since 1947 india and pakistan have disputed over largely muslim kashmir
what is the current status of kashmir?
1/3 in control of pakistan and remainder held by india, have troops in Line of Control
how has the danger in kashmir escalated
both countries have obtained nuclear weapons, which caused national alarm
how has the nuclear proliferation hurt the people of the countries?
very costly, took funding away from food and other human services , economic sanctions by world powers against both countries hurt
how have other countries tried to prevent the conflict of kashmir?
economic sanctions on both countries
why are the tamils mad at the sinhalese?
accuse the government of discrimination, and some have take up arms to create a separate tamil state
where are other internal conflicts?
india hindu vs. muslim vs. sikh
why does india suffer form its social class
the lowest class- dalits or oppressed- continue to experience discrimination and even violent assault
how are the dalits discriminated?
denied housing, educational opportunities, and jobs even though indias constitution outlaws such discrimination
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