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Chapter 28 Bio 160
for Calpoly Bio 160
Terms in this set (34)
how are organisms in the bacteria and archaea domains distinguished?
by the types of molecules that make up their plasma membranes and cell wall
what is unique about the hydrocarbon tails of the phospholipids of in the plasma membrane of archaea
they contain isoprene
why don't antibiotics work on archaea?
they do not affect their ribosomes
why do biologists study bacteria and archaea?
they are ancient, diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous, they are also intrinsically fascinating and important to improving human health and welfare
what makes some cells of the same species pathogenic while others are harmeless?
the genome of the virulent strain is much larger, and contains genes for proteins that allow the cells to adhere to host cells and secrete toxins that disrupt host cells
why do bacteria naturally secrete antibiotics?
weapon that helps cells reduce competition for nutrients and other resources
what are enrichment cultures?
technique for isolating new types of bacteria and archaea by establishing a specific set of growing conditions that favor cells that thrive under the specified conditions, these increase in numbers enough to be isolated and studied in detail
What are thermophiles?
heat loving bacteria or archaea
What is direct sequencing?
a strategy for documenting the presence of bacteria and archaea that cannot be grown in culture. it is based on identifying phylogenetic species
what are phylogenetic species?
species that have enough distinctive characteristics to represent an independent branch on an evolutionary tree
What does direct sequencing allow biologists to do?
identify and characterize organisms that have never been seen
What do biologists use in direct sequencing?
polymerase chain reaction to isolate specific genes
what are halophiles?
salt loving bacteria or archaea
what are sulfate reducers?
cells that produce hydrogen sulfide as a by-product of cellular respiration
what is environmental genomics?
a technique based on sequencing all of most of the genes found in a particular habitat
Who came up with the idea that archaea are more closely related to eukarya than bacteria?
What color does Gram-positive stain?
What color does Gram-negative stain?
What was most responsible for the diversification of bacteria and archaea?
their metabolic diversity
What are organisms two fundamental nutritional needs?
acquiring chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate and obtaining molecules with carbon-carbon bonds that can be used as building blocks for the synthesis of fatty acids, proteins, DNA, RNA, and other large complex compounds required by cells
What are the three ways bacteria and archaea produce ATP?
phototrophs, chemoorganotrophs, chemolithotrophs
What are the two ways they obtain carbon-carbon compounds?
autotrophs and heterotrophs
What is the essence of cellular respiration?
a molecule with high potential energy serves as an original electron donor and is oxidized, while a molecule with low potential energy serves as a final electron acceptor and becomes reduced
what is the end product of cellular respiration?
oxidized glucose forms CO2
What is the final electron acceptor and what is the end product of it?
oxygen and water
What is very different about fermentation from electron transport chains
in fermentation there is no outside electron acceptor used, making it less efficient
How are achaea and bacteria that use fermentation classified?
What are the two ways photosynthesis can happen in bacteria and archaea
using bacteriorhodopsin or by absorbing geothermal radiation
when species use water as a source of electrons for photosynthesis what is it said to complete
what is the electron donor if not water
hydrogen sulfide or ferrous ion
what is fixed in the Calvin cycle
carbon atom in co2
What was the result of cyanobacteria performing oxygenic photosynthesis
aerobic respiration was now possible and the rate of energy production could rise dramatically
where do nitrogen fixing bacteria live
nodules of plant roots
what would happen if bacteria and archaeal lineages did not fix n2?
large and multicellular organisms would be rare because too little nitrogen would be available to make large quantities of proteins
Recommended textbook explanations
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V Minorsky, Steven A. Wasserman
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