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148 terms

1 First Look at Anatomy

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Anatomy
study of structure
Physiology
Study of function of body structures
Cytology
Study of cells
Histology
Study of tissues
Gross anatomy
Study of large body structures visible to the naked eye
Systemic anatomy
the branch of anatomy that studies the structure and function of the body's organ systems. (Student-friendly method)
Regional anatomy
the study of anatomy based on regions or divisions of the body and emphasizing the relations between various structures (muscles and nerves and arteries etc.) in that region
Surface anatomy
The study of landmarks on the outside of the human body that are created by underlying structures and their medical importance
Situs inversus
When organs are reversed left to right. (Donny Osmond's appendix is on the left side of his body)
Organ
Two or more tissues integrated to perform a particular function
Cellular
The level at which the majority of human illness and disease arises.
Skin
Largest organ of the body
Tissues
Groups of similar cells combine to form...
Manubrium
Latin for handle
Gladiolus
Latin for gladiator's sword
Xiphoid
Greek for sword-shaped
Anatomic position
When a person stands upright with the feet parallel and flat on the floor. The head is level and the eyes are looking forward at the observer. The arms are at either side of the body with the palms facing forward.
Anterior view
Facing us
Lateral view
The person facing sideways
Coronal plane
Divides between front and back. Also known as the frontal plane.
Transverse plane
Divides the body into upper and lower portions. Also called horizontal plane or cross-sectional plane. The type of plane used on CT scans.
Midsagittal plane
Divides the body into equal halves, left and right. Also known as the median plane. There is only one median plane.
Anterior
The front. The same as ventral.
Ventral
The front. Same as anterior.
Posterior
The back side. Same as dorsal.
Dorsal surface
The back side. Same as posterior.
Superior
The top, or above. Same as cranial or rostral.
Rostrol
The top, or above. Same as cranial or superior.
Cranial
The top, or above. Same as superior or rostral.
Inferior
Down, or below. Same as caudal.
Internal
Closer to the inside of the body. Also known as Deep.
External
Closer to the outside of the body. Also known as Superficial.
Proximal
Closest to point of attachment to trunk or midline OR closest to ANY point of reference that is given.
Organism
Organs are combined together to create a complete...
Metabolism
Breaking down and utilizing nutrients
Metabolism, growth and development, responsiveness to the internal and external environment, homeostasis, and reproduction
Things humans are capable of because of our complex level of organization
Homeostasis
Regulation of the internal environment
To deliver nutrients and oxygen to every cell, and eliminate toxic wastes from each cell
Why we need the activities of our beautifully-interrelated organ systems
Hysterical
Emotional like a woman
Section
Implies an actual cut or slice
Plane
implies an imaginary flat surface passing through the body
Frontal plane
Divides between front and back. Also known as the coronal plane
Horizontal plane
Divides the body into upper and lower portions. Also called transverse plane or cross-sectional plane. The type of plane used on CT scans.
Cross-sectional plane
Divides the body into upper and lower portions. Also called horizontal plane or transverse plane. The type of plane used on CT scans.
Median plane
Divides the body into equal halves, left and right. Also known as the midsaggital plane. There is only one midsagittal plane.
Sagittal plane
When a cut is done to the left or right of the midline. An infinite number of these planes exist and many such cuts are done in biological displays so that observers can "leaf through" slices of the human body like the pages of a book.
Caudal
Down, or below. Same as inferior.
Deep
Closer to the inside of the body. Also known as Internal.
Superficial
Closer to the outside of the body. Also known as External.
Medial
Toward the midline of the body
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body
Distal
Furthest from point of attachment to trunk or midline OR furthest from ANY point of reference that is given.
Axial region, appendicular region
The major regions of the body
Head, neck, trunk
Areas of the axial region
Upper extremity, lower extremity
Areas of the appendicular region
Facial region, Cranial region
Head is divided into which regions?
Eyes, nose, mouth
The facial region includes...
Covers and supports the brain
Location and function of cranial region
Neck
Supports the head and permits it to move. Also called cervical region.
Cervical region
Supports the head and permits it to move.
Trunk
Also called the torso
Torso
Also called the trunk
chest, abdomen, pelvic region
The trunk region includes...
Chest
Also called the thorax
Thorax
Also called the chest
Mammary region, sternal region, axillary region, vertebral region
Regions included in the thoracic region
Breasts
Also called the mammary region
Mammary region
The region name for the breasts
Armpits
Called the axillary region
Axillary region
The region name for the armpits
Mammary glands
INSIDE the breasts
Navel
Also called umbilicus
Umbilicus
Also called the navel
Cullen's sign
Bruise thing in/on/near the belly button associated with intra-abdominal bleeding (peritoneal bleeding, or more rarely, retroperitoneal bleeding)
Pubic area, perineum, lumbar region, sacral region, gluteal region
Pelvic region includes which regions?
Pubic area
Covered with hair in sexually mature persons
Perineum
The region containing the external sex organs and the anal opening
Lumbar region
Small of the back.
Sacral region
Tail
Gluteal region
Buttocks
Natal cleft
Midline of buttocks
Buttocks
Common site for intramuscular injections
Shoulder, upper arm, forearm, hand
The arm is divided into...
Elbow
Between the arm and forearm. Not listed as part of the arm.
Wrist
Between the forearm and hand. Not listed as part of the arm.
Palm, dorsum of hand, digits
The hand is comprised of...
Hip, Upper leg, knee, lower leg, foot
Lower extremity is divided into...
Deltoid region
Shoulder
Shoulder or deltoid region
A common site for intramuscular injections (but not the buttocks)
Upper arm
Brachium
Forearm
Antebrachium
Hands
manus
Antecubital fossa
Small depressed area on the front of the elbow
Antecubital fossa
Typically used to remove venous blood or to inject medications
Olecranal region
Area on the back of the elbow
Front of the hand
Palm
The back of the hand
Dorsum of hand
Fingers
Digits
Upper leg
Thigh or femoral region
Kneecap
Patellar region
Back of the knee
Popliteal fossa
Lower leg
crural region
Shin
Prominent bony ridge on the front of the lower leg
Calf
Muscular mass at the back of the lower leg
Ankle
Junction between the leg and foot
Heel, plantar surface, dorsum of foot, digits
The foot is composed of...
Heel
At the back of the foot
Sole
Plantar surface (at the bottom of foot)
Top of foot
Dorsum of foot
Toes
Digits of foot
Posterior body cavity, ventral body cavity
Two principal body cavities
Cranial cavity, vertebral canal
The posterior body cavity includes...
Cranial cavity
Houses the brain
Vertebral cavity
Houses the spinal cord and related structures
Thoracic cavity, abdominopelvic cavity
The ventral body cavity includes which cavities?
Diaphragm
What separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity?
Parietal layer
The part of the serous membranes associated with the internal surface of the body wall.
Visceral layer
The part of the serous membranes associated with the external surface of the organs
Lubricating serous fluid
Between the visceral and parietal layers of the serous membranes there is a serous cavity filled with...
No
Are organs inside the serous cavity? Think of the hand and the balloon.
Mediastinum
A median space in the thoracic cavity which contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several major blood vessels that connect with the heart.
the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several major blood vessels that connect with the heart.
The mediastinum contains...
Pericardium
A two-layered serous membrane (and an outer fibrous layer) that encloses the heart
Parietal pericardium
The outermost serous layer of the pericardium (and its associated fibrous layer)
Pericardial sac
Another name for the parietal pericardium
Visceral pericardium
The external surface of the heart
Epicardium
Another name for the visceral pericardium
Pericardial cavity
The potential space between the parietal and visceral pericardia and it contains lubricating serious fluid.
Serous fluid
Like lotion on our hands, it keeps us from making noise and generating heat when our organs touch each other. Saves us from organ friction.
Pleura
The two-layered serous membrane that lines the lungs
Parietal pleura
The outer layer of the pleura. Firmly attached to the chest wall and superior surface of the diaphragm
Visceral pleura
The inner layer of the pleura. The external surface of the lungs
Pleural cavity
The narrow, moist, potential space between the parietal and visceral pleurae. Contains lubricating serous fluid.
Imaginary
The line between the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
Between the superior aspects of the hip (pelvic) bones
Where is the imaginary line drawn? (The line that separates the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity)
Peritoneum
A moist, two-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity
Parietal peritoneum
Lines the internal walls of the abdominopelvic cavity
Visceral peritoneum
Ensheathes the external surface of most digestive organs
Peritoneal cavity
The potential space between these serous membrane layers in the abdominopelvic cavity. Contains lunbricating serous fluid. A SMALLER enclosure within the abdominopelvic cavity.
Kidneys, pancreas, duodenum, ascending colon, descending colon, rectum, bladder
Abdominal organs in the abdominopelvic cavity but NOT in the peritoneal cavity
Peritoneal lavage
A diagnostic test in which rinse solution is inserted and then removed from the peritoneal cavity to detect traumatic damage.
Abdominopelvic quadrants
Right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant
Strep throat, infected hip, pneumonia, or other things
Things that can make your belly hurt.
Oral cavity, nasal cavity, orbital cavities, middle ear cavities
In addition to the large ventral and posterior body cavities, there are several small cavities in the head:
Buccal cavity
Another name for oral cavity
Mucous membranes
Membranes that line cavities that open to the outside of the body
Respiratory tract, digestive tract, urinary tract, reproductive system
Mucous membranes line the:
McBurney's point
The extremely painful spot on the abdomen when someone has acute appendicitus.