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Great Railroad Strike of 1877

large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men


businesses owned by many investors who buy shares of stock

Mesabi Range

A mine in a section of low hills in Minnesota founded by Rockefeller in 1887 that supported the steel industry during the Industrial Revolution; it continues to be the largest source of iron ore in the US

Bessemer Process

Discovered by Henry Bessemer in 1851 way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.

Time Zones

Charles Dowd proposed this idea in 1883 in order to keep railroads on schedule and avoid wrecks

George Westinghouse

an American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry; rival of Thomas Edison.

Cornelius Vanderbilt

an American entrepreneur, he built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was the patriarch of one of the richest families in American history.

refrigerated railroad cars

invented by Gustavus Swift, this invention allowed fresh meat to be shipped great distances without the threat of rot; turned America into a carnivorous continent and greatly enabled the meat industry; arguably one of the most important inventions in American history

Gustavus F. Swift

invented the refrigerated railroad car

Andrew Carnegie

a Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.

U.S. Steel

originally the Carnegie Steel Company, Carnegie sold the enterprise to JP Morgan in 1901; it has since become one of the largest steel producers in the world

Gospel of Wealth

the belief that those entrusted with societys riches had to prove themselves morally responsible

John D. Rockefeller

Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.

Standard Oil

the first great monopoly in America created by John D. Rockefeller

J. P. Morgan

Most Powerful banker of the late 1800s, head of US Steel Company first person to have 1 billion dollars, bailed out US government

"New South"

Term that identified southern promoters' belief in the technologically advanced industrial South

James B. Duke

Made tobacco a profitable crop in the modern South, he was a wealthy tobacco industrialist.

Mass Production

the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)

Frederick W. Taylor

an engineer that made the book The Principles of Scientific Management, an expert on scientific management

Scientific Management

a management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it

Knights of Labor

1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed

Terence Powderly

led the Knights of Labor, a skilled and unskilled union, wanted equal pay for equal work, an 8hr work day and to end child labor

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