large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men
businesses owned by many investors who buy shares of stock
A mine in a section of low hills in Minnesota founded by Rockefeller in 1887 that supported the steel industry during the Industrial Revolution; it continues to be the largest source of iron ore in the US
Discovered by Henry Bessemer in 1851 way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Charles Dowd proposed this idea in 1883 in order to keep railroads on schedule and avoid wrecks
an American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry; rival of Thomas Edison.
an American entrepreneur, he built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was the patriarch of one of the richest families in American history.
refrigerated railroad cars
invented by Gustavus Swift, this invention allowed fresh meat to be shipped great distances without the threat of rot; turned America into a carnivorous continent and greatly enabled the meat industry; arguably one of the most important inventions in American history
Gustavus F. Swift
invented the refrigerated railroad car
a Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
originally the Carnegie Steel Company, Carnegie sold the enterprise to JP Morgan in 1901; it has since become one of the largest steel producers in the world
Gospel of Wealth
the belief that those entrusted with societys riches had to prove themselves morally responsible
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
the first great monopoly in America created by John D. Rockefeller
J. P. Morgan
Most Powerful banker of the late 1800s, head of US Steel Company first person to have 1 billion dollars, bailed out US government
Term that identified southern promoters' belief in the technologically advanced industrial South
James B. Duke
Made tobacco a profitable crop in the modern South, he was a wealthy tobacco industrialist.
the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)
Frederick W. Taylor
an engineer that made the book The Principles of Scientific Management, an expert on scientific management
a management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
led the Knights of Labor, a skilled and unskilled union, wanted equal pay for equal work, an 8hr work day and to end child labor