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Edited Ultimate AP US History Review - Part 2
Terms in this set (80)
Social Security Act, 1935
Provided old-age pension (retirement), and a program of unemployment insurance (temporary aid to help people who lose jobs to find a new job), and federal welfare program (aid for very poor). Most famous and important legacy of New Deal. Has resulted (along with Medicare) with drastic reduction in poverty among elderly in the US
The Share the Wealth society was founded in 1934 by this Louisiana senator, generally considered a left-wing demagogue. He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million. He was assassinated in 1935, but the popularity of his ideas helped to push FDR to the left in the Second New Deal
Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO), 1935
Formed to encourage the AFL to organize workers in mass production industries along industrial union lines (skilled and unskilled workers as opposed to trade union lines - meaning only skilled workers) by eight international unions of the AFL. Union organization of unskilled workers; later broke away from the AFL in 1935 due to ideological differences and rejoined it in 1955 under pressure of 2nd Red Scare
Lend-Lease Act, 1940
US supplied Great Britain, the USSR, Free France, the Republic of China, and other Allied nations with weapons and other necessary materials to fight Axis powers between 1941 and August 1945. US became the "arsenal of democracy"
Atlantic Charter, 1941
Pledge signed by US president FDR and British PM Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war. Also to set up new international organization to mediate disputes between nations that would come in the form of the United Nations. Similar to Wilson's 14 Points after WWI, but this time it was much more successful.
Pearl Harbor, 1941
The Japanese launched a surprise attack against the United States here on Dec. 7, 1941 (a "day that will live in infamy" according to the famous words of FDR). The United States abandoned its policy of isolationism and entered WWII by declaring war on Japan the following day.
Japanese-American internment, 1942
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, many Americans feared that there were Japanese-American spies who are helping the Japanese to secretly bring the U.S. down. Due to this growing fear, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an Executive Order 9066 in February 1942 ordering the relocation of all Americans of Japanese ancestry to concentration camps in the interior of the United States.
Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. It also provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses. Considered an extremely successful government program to both help veterans and boost the US economy.
Yalta Conference, 1945
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Potsdam Conference, 1945
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945
The two Japanese cities on which Truman ordered the dropping of atomic bombs; August 6 and August 9, 1945, respectively.
Why 1945 - 1980 was chosen as the dates for period 8
End of WWII/Beginning of the Cold War; election of Ronald Reagan, conservative movement
Term coined by George Kennan who urged the US to focus foriegn policy on the goal of keeping communism from spreading
"Iron Curtain" speech, 1946
Term coined by British PM Winston Churchill referring to a political barrier that after WWII isolated the peoples of Soviet-dominated communist Eastern Europe from the US-dominated democratic capitalist Western Europe.
Truman Doctrine, 1947
stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to resist internal left-wing (and therefore it was assumed "communist") movements and prevent them from falling into the Soviet sphere.
Marshall Plan, 1947
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe to prevent communism there.
Taft-Hartley Act, 1947
anti-union law passed by increasingly conservative Congress over Truman's veto. Prohibited the closed shop (union only), permitted states to ban union-shop agreements (to become anti-union "right to work" states), forbade union contributions to candidates in federal elections, forced union leaders to swear in affidavits that they were not communists, and mandated an 80 day cooling off period before carrying out strikes.
National Security Act, 1947
Major reorganization of US military after WWII to fight Cold War. It creating the Department of Defense (replacing Dept. of War) in a new building - the Pentagon. Also established the National Security Council (NSC) to advise the president on security matters and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to coordinate the government's foreign fact gathering (spying) and subvert governments and popular movements seen as contrary to the interests of US government elites.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization -- an alliance to stand against the Soviet Union (USSR). member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
relatively obscure Republican senator from Wisconsin, announced he had a list of 205 communists who have infiltrated the U.S. State Department. In widely publicized hearings, he bullied defendants under cross-examination with unlawful and damaging accusations, destroying the reputations of hundreds of innocent citizens and officials. the Senate voted to condemn him for misconduct after he attacked the US military. extreme example of Second Red Scare anti-communist hysteria.
Korean War, 1950-1953
under U.S. leadership, the United Nations joined to support South Korea and China entered to aid North Korea. The war left Korea divided along the 38th parallel. an example of the U.S. Cold War policies of containment and militarization, setting the stage for the further enlargement of the U.S. defense perimeter in Asia (Vietnam)
Eisenhower warned of a drastic military buildup in his farewell address
Post WWII drastic increase in births in the US (1946 - 1964)
More and more Americans moved to suburbs after WWII (cars, Interstate Highway System, Levittown)
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg , 1953
a married couple convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage in 1951, are put to death in the electric chair. Specifically, they were accused of heading a spy ring that passed top-secret information concerning the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
unanimously held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. Overruled Plessy v. Ferguson's "separate but equal" doctrine
Geneva Accords, 1954
a 1954 peace agreement between Ho Chi Minh's communists and the French after the French loss at Dien Bien Phu that divided Vietnam into communist-controlled North and non-communist South until unification elections could be held in 1956. Diem cancelled the elections when he realized the communists would win, further escalating the violence.
Montgomery bus boycott, 1955-56
a political and social protest campaign lasted from December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks was arrested to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a US Supreme Court decision that laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional. MLK Jr. led boycott protests and became a national figure as a result.
Interstate Highway Act, 1956
it was the largest public works project in American history through that time. Passed under Eisenhower, it was justified in part by the necessity for internal transportation in case of communist attack. Stimulated growth of suburbs and economy.
VA to FL, extending to CA; saw a large population increase after WWII and rise of key industries
First man-made satellite put into orbit by the USSR. This caused fear in the US that the Soviets had passed them by in science & technology and the arms race.
U-2 Incident (1960)
The incident derailed an important summit meeting between Eisenhower and Soviet leader Khrushchev. At first the US tried to deny what had happened, but was forced to admit it. It was a major embarrassment to the US and prompted a marked deterioration in its relations with the USSR. Powers was convicted of espionage and sentenced to 3 years of imprisonment plus 7 years of hard labor, but he was released on 10 February 1962 during a prisoner exchange.
Greensboro sit-ins, 1960
nonviolent protest against a segregated lunch counter, success led to a wider sit-in movement, organized primarily by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), that spread throughout the South.
Bay of Pigs, 1961
a failed invasion of Cuba, planned under Eisenhower, implemented under JFK. Cuban exiles living in the US were trained by the CIA and landed in Cuba to start an uprising of the Cuban people against Castro.
Freedom Riders, 1961
civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern U.S. in 1961. They wanted to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation in seating and bus terminals and the non-enforcement of the U.S. Supreme Court decisions, which ruled segregated public buses unconstitutional. The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did not enforce them. Helped push Kennedy towards supporting civil rights.
Peace Corps, 1961
JFK called for volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by fighting poverty in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The work is generally related to social and economic development. Volunteers went abroad to work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, entrepreneurs in education, hunger, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment.
Cuban Missile Crises, 1962
The US set up a blockade to prevent Soviet ships from Cuba. Kennedy and Khrushchev finally reached a bargain where the Soviets wouldn't put missiles in Cuba if the US removed missiles from Turkey that were pointed at USSR
The Feminine Mystique, 1963
(1963) Best-selling book by feminist thinker Betty Friedan. This work challenged women to move beyond the drudgery of suburban housewifery to demand a larger role in society on the basis of equality. Helped launch what would become second-wave feminist movement that would go beyond issues of suffrage to focus on economic, political, and social equality issues like equal pay for equal work and the ERA (Equal Rights Amendment)
March on Washington, 1963
a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech
The Great Society, 1964-65
LBJ & Democratic social reforms that sought the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. in scope and sweep resembled the New Deal domestic agenda of FDR. Most important: Medicare (health care for those over 65), Medicaid (health care for poor, disabled)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
a landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the United States that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public (known as "public accommodations").
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964
gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia. Led to massive escalation of Vietnam War.
Immigration Laws of 1965
Reversed discriminatory quotas acts from the 1920s; favored immigrants from Latin America and Asia
Movement most represented by the Hippies - protested Vietnam War; rejected many ideas of their parents' generation (war, materialism, etc.); used marijuana; helped start a sexual revolution
Easing of Cold War tensions between the US and Soviet Union (Examples include: SALT I and Salt II)
Rachel Carson and Silent Spring
Book about environmental issues (pesticides) brought to the attention of the public; helped lead to the creation of the EPA and Clean Air Act
converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulses to achieve true independence and equality After visiting Mecca, he moderated his views and split with the NOI, who then assassinated him.
Voting Rights Act, 1965
a landmark piece of federal legislation in the US that prohibits discrimination in voting. Signed by LBJ during the height of the Civil Rights Movement. Designed to enforce the voting rights guaranteed by the 14th & 15th Amendments, the Act allowed for a mass enfranchisement of racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South.
Watts riots, 1965
a so-called "race riot" that took place in Los Angeles from August 11 to 17, 1965. The six-day unrest resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage. It was the most severe riot in the city's history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992.
Miranda v. State of Arizona, 1966
Criminal suspect's rights include being informed of rights to counsel and to remain silent. (Warren Court)
Tet Offensive, 1968
one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army against the forces of South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies. had an enormous psychological impact on the US, showing that the war was far from over, and proving that the government was lying about the war.
assassinated while running in Democratic primary in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. Nixon (Republican) won presidency that year.
Chicago Democratic Convention, 1968
Anti-war riots at this event gave impression of Democrats as the party of disorder, helping Nixon win with "law and order" & "silent majority" (meaning pro-war, anti-hippie) message.
AIM , 1968
Native American activist organization
walked on moon, 1969 - famously said, "that's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind."
The US policy of withdrawing its troops and transferring the responsibility and direction of the war effort to the government of South Vietnam. would bring the end of US troop involvement in the Vietnam war in 1973.
My Lai massacre
made public, 1969 American troops brutally massacred innocent women and children in a south vietnamese village.increased opposition to the war of Vietnam
Kent State, 1970
Students riot at this university, protesting the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia by Nixon; the national guard opens fire, killing to 4 students.
Pentagon Papers, 1971
Secret document papers, published by the New York Times in 1971, Revealed the government misleading the people of its involvement in Vietnam, both about the intentions and the outcomes of the conflict.
five men arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee's executive quarters Senate investigations revealed they were trained by the CIA and that the White House was involved. Nixon later admitted to complicity in the burglary, in part because of the recording devices he had installed in the White House held proof he was involved. In July, 1974, Nixon's impeachment began, so he resigned - the only president in US history to do so
Roe v. Wade, 1973
(Burger court decision) Certain state criminal abortion laws violate the Due Process clause of the 14th Amendment, which protects against state action the (implied) right to privacy in the Bill of Rights (9th amendment). Abortion cannot be banned in the 1st trimester (1st 3 months), states can regulate the 2nd trimester, 3rd trimester - abortion is illegal except to save the life of the mother
OPEC oil embargo, 1973
imposed against the US in retaliation for the US support for Israel during the 1973 Arab-Israeli War. The price of oil in the US tripled causing widespread economic hardship.
Panama Canal Treaty, 1977
Passed by President Carter, called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality. Condemned by many of Carter's opponents.
Camp David Accords, 1979
the peace accords signed to finally end the Israeli-Egyptian disputes. The achievement by Carter is considered his greatest while in office.
Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan, 1979
USSR and the democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Sunni Mujahideen (Islamic warriors), who were supported by Pakistan, China, the US, the UK, Saudi Arabia, and Iran. These forces would later form the Taliban and al-Qaeda
Iranian hostage crises, 1979-81
On November 4, 1979, 52 American citizens and diplomats were taken hostage by a group of supporters as the Iranian Revolution took control of the US Embassy in Tehran. These hostages were held captive for 444 days. To Iran, the asylum that was granted to Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was viewed as American complicity in the carnages enacted by the Shah, thus giving reason to their acts to take hostages. The crisis hurt President Carter's image, and the hostages were released the day before Reagan took office
refers to the economic policies promoted by President Reagan in the 1980s and is supported by most conservatives today. The policies are similar to laisezz-faire policies of the Gilded Age and 1920s Republican presidents. The five pillars of Reaganomics include: reducing size of federal government spending, reduce taxes, reduce government regulation, increase military spending, and tighten the money supply to reduce inflation. Political opponents often call this form of economics "trickle-down economics" while its advocates title it "supply side economics"
Soviet leader that saw improved relations with Reagan, instituted glasnost and perestroika which helped lead to the downfall of the Soviet Union
Early in his administration, Reagan used aggressive words towards the Soviet Union: "Evil Empire"
Invasion of Grenada, 1983
Ronald Reagan dispatched an invasion force to the island, where a military coup had killed the prime minister and brought Marxists to power ----Americans captured the island quickly demonstrating Reagan's determination to assert the dominance of the US in the Caribbean
Iran-Contra scandal, 1987
The Reagan Administration illegally sold weapons in secret to the Islamic Republic of Iran while it was fighting Saddam Hussein's Iraq (also supported by the US), then used the money to illegally support brutal right-wing Contras in their attempt to overthrow the left-wing government in Nicaragua even though Congress had prohibited this assistance.
INF Treaty, 1988
a 1987 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union. The treaty eliminated nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges, defined as between 500-5,500 km (300-3,400 miles). The treaty was signed in Washington, D.C. by U.S. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev on December 8, 1987, it was ratified by the United States Senate on May 27, 1988 and came into force on June 1 of that year.
Persian Gulf War, 1991
Saddam Hussein's Iraq invaded Kuwait over oil dispute on the border against US wishes (Saddam had formerly been US ally). US invaded Iraq to liberate Kuwait; Iraq set Kuwait's oil fields on fire so the Americans couldn't gain the oil; this conflict caused the US to set military bases in Saudi Arabia; also called Operation: Desert Storm.
Soviet Union dissolved, 1991
The Revolutions of 1989 that started in Eastern Europe ended with the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the end of Cold War. 1989 saw the Soviet people making a democratic choice for the first time since 1917 when they elected the new Congress of People's Deputies, and Boris Yeltsin as president. Gorbachev, the last Soviet leader, abandoned the oppressive, expensive Brezhnev Doctrine(preservation of Soviet satellite states) and decided not to use force to maintain the Soviet empire, which broke up into 15 different countries.
Oklahoma City bombing, 1995
Attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in on April 19, 1995. It remained the most destructive act of terrorism committed in the United States until 9/11/01. Killed 168 people. As a result of the bombing, the U.S. government passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996.
Clinton impeachment trial, 1999
50 Senators voted to remove the president on an obstruction of justice charge and 45 voted to remove him on a perjury charge (no Democrat voted guilty on either charge). He was acquitted of both charges.
2001 - Four coordinated terrorist attacks launched by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda upon the US in NYC and the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Four passenger airliners were hijacked by terrorists. 2 crashed into the World Trade Center in NYC. A third plane crashed into the Pentagon in DC. The fourth plane was targeted at Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field in Pennsylvania after passengers attacked terrorists on the plane. Led directly to 2002 invasion of Afghanistan (then the base of al-Qaeda operations) and the longest war in US history.
War on terrorism
Response to 9/11, US would actively fight terrorism throughout the world
Goal is to increase trade among countries by reducing tariffs (- no tariffs between US, Canada, and Mexico)
First African American president. First years in office witnessed many important new laws: Affordable Care Act (AKA "Obamacare") extended health care to millions but was controversial. ended "Don't Ask Don't Tell" and was the first president to endorse gay marriage. Oversaw the withdrawal of forces from Iraq and the reconstruction of the American economy. Faced rise of the Tea Party in 2010, an extremely conservative wing of Republican Party that turned increasingly conservative and hostile as American politics became extremely partisan.
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APUSH chapter 5
Period 1 Questions To Know
Period 2 Questions To Know
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