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Terms in this set (48)
the objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgment
the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the use of figures of speech and other compositional techniques.
a statement or theory that is put forward as a premise to be maintained or proved; a long essay or dissertation involving personal research, written by a candidate for a college degree
the action or fact of persuading someone or of being persuaded to do or believe something; a belief or set of beliefs, especially religious or political ones
an exchange of diverging or opposite views, typically a heated or angry one; a reason or set of reasons given with the aim of persuading others that an action or idea is right or wrong
center on the meaning, composition or classification of things
deal with the causes and effects of events. They analyze questions like "what led to this?" and "what are the likely results of this event?"
evaluate the inherent goodness or morality of an event and the value systems by which we should make decisions
address the course of action we should take, the policies we should adopt, and the way that we attempt to solve problems
the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one's existing beliefs or theories
opinions or interests shared by each of two or more parties; easiest through narrative
the practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own
the person for whom a writer writes, or composer composes. A writer uses a particular style of language, tone, and content according to what he knows about his ___. In simple words, ___ refers to the spectators, listeners, and intended readers of a writing, performance, or speech
an appeal to ethics, and it is a means of convincing someone of the character or credibility of the persuader
an appeal to emotion, and is a way of convincing an audience of an argument by creating an emotional response
a literary device that can be defined as a statement, sentence or argument used to convince or persuade the targeted audience by employing reason or logic
a display of faulty reasoning that makes an argument invalid, or a faulty belief based on an unsound argument; hurt your ethos
a fallacy; the claim doesn't follow the grounds
a fallacy in which one event is said to be the cause of a later event simply because it occurred earlier. Also called the fallacy of false cause, faulty cause, and arguing from succession alone
a fallacy in which a conclusion is not logically justified by sufficient or unbiased evidence. Also called insufficient sample, converse accident, faulty generalization, biased generalization, jumping to a conclusion, secundum quid, and neglect of qualifications
a fallacy in which a person asserts that some event must inevitably follow from another without any argument for the inevitability of the event in question
an informal fallacy. It applies to inductive arguments. It is an informal fallacy because the error is about what the argument is about, and not the argument itself. An analogy proposes that two concepts which are similar (A and B) have a common relationship to some property
a common form of argument and is an informal fallacy based on giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while refuting an argument that was not advanced by that opponent
begging the question
a fallacy in which the premises include the claim that the conclusion is true or (directly or indirectly) assume that the conclusion is true
a fallacy; Distracting the audience by providing a piece of evidence that seems relevant, but is not relevant at all.
appeal to ignorance
a fallacy in informal logic. It asserts that a proposition is true because it has not yet been proven false (or vice versa)
a fallacy; Attacking a speaker's character rather than his or her arguments in order to counter him or her
a phrase, clause, or sentence that introduces a quotation, paraphrase, or summary; like this: As Matt Sundeen has noted, "..."
a technique employed by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society by using humor, irony, exaggeration or ridicule. It intends to improve humanity by criticizing its follies and foibles.
a contrast or incongruity between expectations for a situation and what is reality
a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance. It does not describe in detail the person or thing to which it refers.
The Toulmin model
traditional arguments, 6 parts; claim, grounds, warrants, backing, modal qualifiers, rebuttals
a statement that asserts something to be true; can either be factual or a judgment
the premises from which the claim is deduced
the glue that holds an argument together. It links the evidence to the claim.
the support or explanation provided for the warrant; "because"
a literary technique in which a speaker or writer uses argument and presents reasoning or evidence intended to undermine or weaken the claim of an opponent.
The Rogerian argument
non-traditional argument; friendly and chill; respectful to other views; seeks to achieve some degree of assent rather than convince utterly
the central topic a text treats; can be divided into two categories: a work's thematic concept is what readers "think the work is about" and its thematic statement being "what the work says about the subject".
an attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience; generally conveyed through the choice of words or the viewpoint of a writer on a particular subject; can be formal, informal, serious, comic, sarcastic, sad, and cheerful or it may be any other existing attitudes
the literary term used for language and description that appeals to our five senses
Generally, it is an object representing another to give it an entirely different meaning that is much deeper and more significant
the time and place in which the story takes place
a figure of speech in which abstract ideas and principles are described in terms of characters, figures and events
can be defined as any person, animal, or figure represented in a literary work
point of view
the angle of considering things, which shows us the opinion, or feelings of the individuals involved in a situation
a figure of speech which makes an implicit, implied or hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated but share some common characteristics. In other words, a resemblance of two contradictory or different objects is made based on a single or some common characteristics
repetition of a word or a phrase
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