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Psych Final Exam
Terms in this set (46)
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
determined that people were not being demonically possessed but had a sickness in the mind (1700). Hospitals replaced asylums by the 1800s.
The Medical Model
the patient is examined physically then disorders are diagnosed, treatable, and often cured.
Biological influences that cause disorders
looks at your brain structure and genes (depression)
Social-cultural influences that cause disorders
focuses on your roles and expectations in life (anorexia)
Psychological influences that cause disorders
focuses on your mood-related perceptions and memories (PTSD)
Abnormal Behavior Criteria
deviance: thoughts and behaviors that are different from the rest of your cultural context.
personal distress: a subjective feeling that something is really wrong.
dysfunction: when a person's ability to work and live is clearly, and often measurably impaired.
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
major depressive disorder (depression)
Depressed mood, loss of interest/pleasure, significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or too much sleep, feeling worthless, thoughts of death/suicide
Depressed mood with w or more of: Poor appetite or overeating, Insomnia or hypersomnia, Low energy or fatigue, Low self-esteem, Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, Feelings of hopelessness.
A mood disorder with alternating periods of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Bipolar I disorder- two mood states, depression and mania
Bipolar II disorder- severe episodes of depression, but episodes of mania are milder.
Psychoanalytic and Humanistic Therapies-Insight therapies
attempt to improve functioning by increasing clients' awareness of motives and defenses
apply learning principles to modify problem behaviors.
Psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud)
Bring patients' repressed feelings into conscious awareness
and helps them release energy devoted to self conflicts so they may achieve healthier, less anxious lives.
Emphasis on people's potential for self-fulfillment; to give people new insights.
Behavior Therapies(BT): Counterconditioning
evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors
BT: Exposure therapies
treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear and avoid
BT: Aversive conditioning
associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior
BT: Systematic desensitization
associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing, anxiety-triggering stimuli
BT: Operant Conditioning
consequences drive behavior, voluntary behaviors are strongly influenced by their consequences
BT: Behavior modification
desired behavior reinforced; undesired behavior not reinforced, sometimes punished
BT: Token Economy
people earn a token for exhibiting the desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for privileges or treats
teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking.
cognitive behavioral therapy
Integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy; aims to alter the way they act and the way they think.
appraising and responding to a threatening or challenging event
Problem-focused coping with stress
direct; change stressor or interaction with stressor
Emotion-focused coping with stress
indirect; avoid or ignore stressor and focus on emotional needs.
occurs when people experience no control over repeated bad events making us more vulnerable to ill health.
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces control our fate.
internal locus of control
the perception that we control our own fate.
the ability to control impulses and delay short term gratification for longer term rewards.
people need people for a less stressful life.
aerobic exercise, relaxation and meditation, faith communities and health
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
we explain others behavior by crediting either the situation or the person.
fundamental attribution error
when analyzing other behaviors we underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
agreeing to a large request after having agreed to a small request
cognitive dissonance theory
we change our attitudes to fit our actions to help the situation feel more comfortable.
we often comply with social pressures (mimicry)
strong social influences can make ordinary people conform to falsehoods or exhibit cruel behavior.
the presence of others helps improve performance of easy tasks and decrease performance on difficult tasks.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Group discussions with like-minded others strengthen members' prevailing beliefs and attitudes
when people desire harmony within a group it can override realistic appraisal of alternatives.
interaction between the power of the individual and the situation.
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