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Ch 13: Anti-inflammatory Drugs with true and false
Terms in this set (67)
These are the sensory receptors specifically for pain.
Arachidonic Acid Cascade/Pathway
This is the series of steps that starts with trauma to cell membranes and ends with the production of compounds that produce the clinical signs of inflammation.
This is the collective name for inflammatory mediators that include prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
In the arachidonic acid cascade, this is the enzyme that begins the process by breaking down molecules that make up the cell membrane of the traumatized cell.
This enzyme converts phospholipids to arachidonic acid.
This is the enzyme that is blocked by glucocorticoids in the arachidonic acid cascade.
This enzyme converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and thromboxanes.
This enzyme converts arachidonic acid to luekotrienes.
This compound, when activated, causes platelets to adhere to each other to form a platelet plug (ie, clot).
This is the name of the broad category of corticosteroid drugs that reduce inflammation.
This term describes a collective term for all of the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex.
This is the outer layer of the adrenal gland.
This is the collective term adrenocorticosteroids that are involved with the balance of water and electrolytes in the body.
This is the principal mineralcorticoid hormone produced by the adrenal gland that causes retention of sodium.
This is another name for Addison's Disease that describes the state of the adrenal gland.
This means "elevated blood levels of potassium."
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) or Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF)
This is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
This is released by the pituitary in response to stimulation from Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH).
This refers to the dosage form of glucocorticoid in which the drug is combined with sodium phosphate or sodium succinate to make it water soluble.
This refers to the dosage form of glucocorticoid in which the drug is completely dissolved in a liquid medium that is not water based; the label only lists the glucocorticoid name without sodium phosphate, pivalate, or diacetate.
This refers to the dosage form of glucocorticoid in which the drug is complexed with diacetate, pivalate, acetonide, or valerate.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
This is the natural hormone that prevents excessive loss of water into the urine; it conserves water in the body.
This specific enzyme breaks down the middle protein layer of the cornea under the influence of glucocorticoid eye drops.
This is another name for hyperadrenocorticism.
This is another name for hypoadrenocorticism.
This term means "the doctor caused it."
This term means "increased eating."
This term refers to the loss of hair or a thin hair coat.
This cyclooxygenase (COX) always exists in the tissues and is responsible for normal functioning of the tissue or organ.
This COX becomes activated with trauma and produces prostaglandins responsible for the signs of inflammation.
Salicylic Acid or Acetylsalicylic Acid
These are two other names for aspirin.
This is inflammation of the iris and ciliary body in the eye.
This is salicylic acid.
This is the short-acting glucocorticoid made from the precursor cortisone.
This old equine NSAID is 99% protein-bound in the house and produces aplastic anemia in humans.
Prednisone, Prednisolone, Methylprednisolone
These are three -pred compounds most commonly used in veterinary medicine.
Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)
This anti-inflammatory is a solvent that easily carries other drugs, chemicals, or poisons through the skin and into the body.
Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)
This anti-inflammatory does not work by inhibiting COX but scavenging reactive radical molecules that damage healthy tissue.
Flunixin Meglumine (Banamine)
This nonselective COX inhibitor NSAID is also thought to be effective for reducing the effects of endotoxins.
This was the first COX-2 selective inhibitor NSAID in veterinary medicine.
Not an anti-inflammatory but an antipyretic and analgesic that is very toxic to cats.
Glucocorticoid drug that is most like natural cortisol.
Ibuprofen and Naproxen
These are two common OTC human NSAIDs that are not used to treat veterinary patients but can be seen in practice as toxicosis cases from owners using these in place of aspirin or veterinary NSAIDs.
This selective COX-2 inhibitor NSAID is still used but produces keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) as one of its side effects.
Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)
This anti-inflammatory is applied topically but causes mast cells to release histamine; should not be used in animals with mast cell tumors.
Hyaluronic Acid or Hyaluronate Sodium
This injectable chondroprotective agent is an essential component of sunovial fluid; it provides additional lubrication and has anti-inflammatory qualities.
This selective COX-2 inhibitor NSAID is one of the few for which a single dose is allowed to be used in cats; it is not to be given more than once in cats because of side effects.
Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)
This anti-inflammatory drug stinks like garlic or oysters; it must be applied topically in a well-ventilated place.
Polysulfated glycosaminoglycans (PSGAGs)
This injectable chondroprotective agent mimics the components of normal joint cartilage but also inhibits destructive enzymes in the joint space.
This NSAID is used to prevent spontaneous clot formation in people and cats with cardiomyopathy.
Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate
This orally administered nutraceutical chondroprotective agent is actually a precursor for PSGAG formation by the chondrocytes.
this short acting glucocorticoid must be activated by the liver to be effective
these are the three commonly used "Methasones" used in veterinary medicine
dexamethasone, betamethasone, flumethasone
primarily inhibit phospholipase
E. Aldosterone's function is primarily to retain sodium in the body while allowing excretion of potassium.
F. Cushing's disease is hyperadrenocorticism.
G. In hypoadrenocorticism the animals have hyponatremia and hyperkalemia.
True. The hyperkalemia can be fatal
___________ is the precursor to hydrocortisone
Increased ACTH would cause
The release of cortisol
Elevated levels of cortisol decrease release of CRH and ACTH.
True. Release is decreased by the negative feedback mechanism
An every-other-day dose of dexamethasone is more likely to cause atrophy of the adrenal gland over time than an every-other-day dose of prednisolone.
True. The suppression of release of CRH and ACTH by supraphysiologic concentrations of glucocorticoids from drugs causes the adrenal cortex to atrophy from lack of stimulation. Dexamethasone has a longer duration of action than prednisolone and hence also has a longer inhibiting effect on the hypothalamic and pituitary release of CRH and ACTH.
The antiinflammatory dose of a glucocorticoid is typically lower than the immunosuppressive dose.
True. An immunosuppressive dose is higher so as to suppress the body's immune response well beyond what is suppressed at the antiinflammatory dose.
If a diabetic patient needed its insulin dose adjusted after being placed on a high dose of dexamethasone, the insulin dose would most likely need to be increased
The stress leukogram is characterized by eutrophilia, monocytopenia and lymphopenia.
_____________ produces the prostaglandins most often associated with inflammation.
Opioids are better analgesics than the NSAIDs.
Prostaglandins in the stomach increase mucus production and decrease stomach acid production.
As doses of selective COX-2 inhibitors are increased, the selectivity for COX-2 over COX-1 inhibition decreases.
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