Chapter 17 AP Review: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Terms in this set (41)
What is psychoanalysis?
an approach to studying mental illness that assumes mental illness is caused by subconscious conflicts
What is free association?
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
What does a therapist strive to do in psychoanalytic therapy?
to remain detached from the patient; resisting emotional or personal investment
What is transference?
patient shifts thoughts and feelings about certain people or events on therapist
What is countertransference?
therapist transfers his or her own feelings onto the patient
What is client-centered therapy?
Carl Rogers; the assumption that clients can be understood only in terms of their own reality; therapist is active listener
What is unconditional positive regard?
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
What is accurate empathetic understanding?
therapist's ability to view the world from the eyes of the client
What is Gestalt therapy?
Fritz Perls; combines both physical and mental therapies
- clients accept all parts of their feelings
- role playing and empty chair technique
What is behavioral therapy?
believes changing behavior is key to treating problems; no deep underlying cause of the problem
What is counterconditioning?
a response to a given stimulus is replaced by a different response
What is aversion therapy?
an aversive stimulus is repeatedly paired w/ the behavior that the client wishes to stop
What is systemic desensitization?
Gradual exposure of a patient to the feared object or situation while teaching relaxation and breathing techniques
What are extinction procedures?
designed to weaken maladaptive responses
What is flooding?
exposing a client to the stimulus that causes the undesirable response
What is implosion?
client imagines the disruptive stimuli rather than actually confronting them
What is operant conditioning?
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
What is behavioral contracting?
therapist and client draw up a contract to which they both agree to abide; client must act/not act in certain ways; therapist must provide stated rewards if the client holds up his or her end of the bargain
What is modeling?
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
What is cognitive therapy?
Aaron Beck; therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
What is negative triad?
negative view of self, world, and future
What is arbitrary inference?
Part of Beck CBT. Drawing wrong conclusions about oneself by making invalid connections. For example, it rains, the world is against you
What is dichotomous thinking?
Tendency to see only the extremes in things
What is rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)?
Albert Ellis; This form of therapy points out the irrational assumptions held by clients, suggest more appropriate assumptions, and assign homework that give the individuals practice at challenging old assumptions and applying new ones.
What are biological therapies?
medical approaches to behavioral problems
What is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)?
a treatment that involves inducing a brief seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain; causes temporary amnesia; had been successful w/ depression
What is psychosurgery?
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
What is a prefrontal lobotomy?
surgical disconnection of the prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain
What is psychopharmacology?
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
What is a psychotropic?
a medication that has an effect of calming and tranquilizing people
antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, and lithium salts
What are antipsychotics?
reduce symptoms of schizophrenia by blocking the neural receptors for dopamine
- Clozapine, Thorazine, Haldol
- side effects: jerky movements, tremors, muscle stiffness
What do antidepressants do?
Antidepressants block the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin. This permits them to linger longer in synapses and to be more available to postsynaptic receptors.
What are the groups of antidepressants?
MAO inhibitors, Tricyclics, selective reuptake inhibitors
What are MAO inhibitors?
- block monoamine oxidase which is responsible for breakdown of neurotransmitters
- increasing serotonin and norepinephrine in synaptic cleft
What are tricyclics?
increase amount of serotonin and norepinephrine
What are selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)?
block reuptake of serotonin
What are anxiolytics?
What are common anxiolytics?
- benzodiazepines: muscle relaxation, feeling of tranquility
What is lithium carbonate?
A naturally occurring metallic salt, which can be used in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
What is group therapy?
therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction
What is a twelve step program?
combo of spirituality and group therapy