Baroque general and Listening
Terms in this set (72)
Etymology of "Baroque"
Portuguese word "barroco"- meaning, bulbous or misshapen pearl.
Years of Baroque
Name 3 scientific discoveries during the seventeenth century
Laws of motion, Laws of gravity, planets orbit the sun
Countries involved in the Thirty Years War
Germany, France, Sweden, and Denmark v. Holy Roman Empire and Spain
Briefly summarize differences between Renaissance and Baroque art. Use specific examples
Michelangelo's statue of David vs. Bernini's statue of David. The first shows a stationary David and displays humanistic qualities while the later displays naturalism, reaction, motion, human emotion, and did not always strive for beauty, making physical imperfections acceptable.
Melody in Renaissance v. Baroque
simple and lyrical v. an emphasis on virtuosity, ornamented, and melismatic
Harmony in Renaissance v. Baroque
Modal as result of counterpoint v. tonal with progressions
Rhythm in Renaissance v. Baroque
Even and balanced, tactus v. variable depending on text
Texture in Renaissance v. Baroque
Equal voice polyphony, horizontally conceived v. polarity between outer voices
Text setting in Renaissance v. Baroque
Restrained representation of the text v. Representation of the text musically
Goal of Baroque art:
move the affections (emotions)
Style characteristics of the Early Baroque
1. Reaction against polyphony
2. Desire for dissonance and violent interpretation of text
What did Monteverdi call the sides of the debate about musical style
Prima pratica and seconda pratica
Term used by Monterverdi to describe the compositional tool for counterpoint and where musical values prevail over words.
Term used by Monterverdi to describe the compositional tool where text dominated musical setting, unorthodox dissonance, and unexpected harmonic progressions.
Greek "one song" .
Single melody for solo singer with bass line intended for harmony
Who composed their Fifth Book of Madrigals in 1605?
Basso Continuo or thorough bass
Written bass intended for performer to realize harmony and fill in inner voices
Written basso continuo. System using numbers and a bass line for performer to fill in inner voices
Italian for "little book". Play usually written in rhymed and unrhymed verse.
Rinuccini's poem Dafne set to music by Corsi and Peri.
Rinuccini's drama set to music by Peri and then Caccini
Most important early Baroque composer
Under what family did Monteverdi have a court position
The Gonzaga family
Following his court position with the Gonzaga family, at what church did Monteverdi work
Maestro di capella at St. Mark's cathedral in Venice, Italy
Who composed? Orfeo
recurring instrumental sections
Where did the center for operatic developments shift in the 1620s?
First public opera house
Teatro San Cassiano in Venice
Name 2 Monteverdi Operas in addition to Orfeo
Il ritorno d'Ullisse and the L'incoronazione di Poppea
"old style" associated with Palestrina. Associated with church music
"modern style"- associated with church music
combined elements of narrative, dialogue, and commentary. Performed in the oratory. Included recitatives, arias, duets , and instrumental preludes., A dramatic work for chorus, solo voices, and orchestra. Does not include scenery, costuming, or stage action. Longer and performed on a larger scale than a cantata.
"sounded" referred broadly to a piece for any instrument, "to sound"; classical music composition for one or more instruments; one of the instruments is usually a keyboard; usually consists of 3 or 4 independent movements
Ospedali della pieta
for poor, mentally ill, or abandoned girls. Trained girls in music- played all instruments regardless of gender specific roles
Who composed L'incoronazione di Poppea?
Monteverdi from 5th book of madrigals
Giovanni Gabrieli, from Symphoniae sacre liber secundus
Magnificat a 12
Andrea Gabrieli, composed for three choirs, ranges imply instrumental participation
Hired at St Marks in 1566. Spent part of early life in Munich, formed lasting friendship with Lassus. Best known for two books of motets, instrumental works, organ canzonas
Instrumental genre in several several movements for solo instrumental (or instrumental group) or orchestra
Baroque concerto type based on the opposition between a small group of solo instruments.
A popular genre of secular vocal mRenaissance, in which usually four to five voices sing love poems
Period of time from after Christmas to the beginning of Lent. Brought in hoards of people to the opera houses.
concerted style. Term used to indentify Baroque music marked by grand scale and strong contrast, either between voices and instruments, between separate instrumental ensembles, between separate choral groups, or even between soloist and choir. Timber= different colors in the sound. Forces= large forces like multiple choirs. Dynamics= written into the music. Polychoral effects= use of church space as part of musical experience. Autonomous Instrumental Music= instrumental music becomes just as important as vocal music.
Motet with elements of the concerted style. An example is In Eclesiis. Gabrieli assigned the soloists difficult parts. To the chorus he gives a completely different kind of music. The instruments have their own timbre, on edistince from the voices. Highly complex texture results.
broken choirs. Separated and dispersed around the church
(1554-1612). Hired at St Marks as organist in 1584, and at San Rocco the following year. Among the first composers to fully exploit the sonic opportunities afforded by San Marco. First composer in the history of music to indicate dynamic levels in a musical score. Sonata pian e forte requires the instruments to play soft and loud at various times. First to use the term sonata. First composer to write idiomatically for particular instruments and specify the instruments in the score. Created concerted motet.
(1585-1672). Among the first of a long line of seventeenth and eighteenth century composers who made their way to Italy to learn the Italian style. Came from the area of central Germany not far from Dresden, had shown musical talent as a youth. Became Kapellmeister at the chapel of Elector of Saxony. He supervised the selection and performance of the singers and instrumentalists and oversaw the education and musical preparation of the choirboys. He also began to publish sacred music for the court. First to write opera in German, Dafne (1627). Wrote for Protestant audiences. Learned from Gabrieli. Saul Saul, was verfolgst du mich? shows the dramatic conventions of opera and the concerted motet.
Madrigal with instrumental accompaniment. Appears most prominently in Monteverdi's eighth book. Appearance of instruments and textures and timbres are strongly contrasting.
instrumental work designed to show off the creative spirit of the composer as well as the technical skill of the performer. "touched", a baroque musical composition (usually for a keyboard instrument) with full chords and rapid elaborate runs in a rhythmically free style
instrumental piece usually for lute or keyboard, that is similar in style to the sixteenth-century imitativev motet. Frescobaldi's is monothematic-- single distinct subject and a countersubject
two treble instruments and continuo
(1678-1741) native of Venice who became a historical figure in that city's long and distinguished musical history. Violin virtuoso. wrote and produced nearly fifty operas. Red-haired priest. Forbidden to practice his musical artistry in certain papally controlled lands. Worked at Hospice of Mercy as educator of young women. Girls received religious training and music training practicing four hours a day. The all female orchestra offered public performances for tourists. Wrote over 500 concerti.
Vivaldi Opus 3 "Harmonic Passion/Inspiration." Twelve concerti grossi
The Four Seasons
The first four of the twelve solo concertos in Opus 8
Louis XIV's favorite composer. Born in Florence and taken under Louis XIV's wing as Master of Music for the Royal Family. Gradually gamed exclusive authority over public vocal music. He himself became an absolutist. Director of Academie royale de musique.
Ottone in Villa
Vivaldi's first opera, premiered in Venezi in 1713. Limited budged, no special effects, small orchestra of strings and a pair of oboes/recorders.
with the part (doubling)
Sontata pian e forte
Giovanni Gabrieli, 1597. Throughcomposed with little repetition, five sections. Chords generally in root and first inventions,4-3 suspensions are common.
(1602-1676) A Venetian composer of some of the earliest operas, whose long career witnessed opera's development from its earliest beginnings into popular spectacles performed in public opera houses.
Cavalli, plot is combination of Greek myths involving Calisto, Jupiter, and Diana. Skillful blend of recitative, arioso, arias and ensembles.
Son of a well-off family, never held a paid position in Venice. First to consistently use fast-slow-fast concerto style. Use of voice and oboe emphasizes conjunct motion, chromatic approach to harmony.
Concerto for oboe in d minor
Albinoni, published 1722. Militant first movement in ritornello-rondo form. Second movement well known, long phrases reminiscent of operatic aria. Third movement Allegro 6/8
Where did Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli travel in their youth for musical training?
Confraternity where Giovanni Gabrieli worked
Orchestration of In Ecclesiis
Choir I four soloists and continuo, choir II full choir and continuo, choir III three trumpets, three trombones, violin, organ
Meaning of In Ecclesiis
"In churches"--emphasizes redemption and healing through penance
Who developed basso continuo?
Subject of Coronation of Poppea
Among the first operas based on actual historical figures: Poppea is mistress of Nero, schemes to become empress. Focal point is human nature, for all its darkness
Contents of Fifth Book of Madrigals
19 madrigals on the theme of unrequited love--includes one cycle of three and one cycle of five. Subtitled "seconda prattica."
Contents of Vivaldi Opus 3
12 concerti grosso, issued in partbooks for four violins, two violas, cello, continuo ("violone e cembalo")