Chapter 18 AP Review: Social Psychology
Terms in this set (64)
What is group dynamics?
some of the phenomena we observe when people interact
What is social facilitation?
people tend to perform better on simple tasks when in the presence of others
What is social inhibition?
a decrease in performance when in the presence of others
What is social loafing?
The tendency for individuals to put forth less of an effort when working in a group than when working alone.
What is group polarization?
the tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members
What is the most effective method to resolve a conflict between two groups?
have them cooperate toward a superordinate goal
What is GRIT (Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction)?
encourages groups to announce intent to reduce tensions and show small, conciliatory behaviors as long as these reduced tensions and behaviors are reciprocated
What is attribution?
the way in which people assign responsibility for certain outcomes
What is dispositional attribution?
assumes that the case of a behavior or outcome is internal
What is situational attribution?
assigns the cause to the environment or external conditions
What is self serving bias?
sees the cause of actions as internal (or dispositional) when the outcomes are positive or external (situational) when the results are negative
What is fundamental attribution error?
The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others
What is self-fulfilling prophecy?
if someone believes something will happen, then that thing will happen
What is the Rosenthal Effect?
Also known as experimenter effect - researcher's beliefs about a participant affect the way they treat them, and the participant begins to fulfill the researcher's expectations.
What is interpersonal attraction?
the tendency to positively evaluate a person and then to gravitate to that person
What is positive evaluation?
we all like to be positively evaluated; we tend to prefer the company of people who think highly of us
What are shared opinions?
praised and rewarded by a person for our opinions -> we prefer their company
What is the mere exposure effect?
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them; people tend to prefer people and experiences that are familiar
What is conformity?
modification of behavior to make it agree w/ that of a group
Who is Solomon Asch?
performed studies on the nature of conformity
What was Asch's experiment?
Asch's experiment tried to see how a person was affected when under group pressures. He had the experimentee in a group of three. Group of three gave the wrong person on purpose. More than 1/3 of the people in his study were willing to give the wrong answer to conform to others.
What is compliance?
changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change
What is reciprocity?
the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit, especially privileges granted by one country or organization to another.
What is the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
What is the door-in-the-face phenomenon?
a large request is made first, making subsequent smaller requests more appealing
What is the inoculation hypothesis?
Exposure to weak versions of strong arguments helps one resist when faced with the strong message
What is psychological reactance?
unpleasant tension people experience whenever they feel that someone is trying to limit their freedom
What is obedience?
Complying with the demands of an authority figure
Who was Stanley Milgram?
social psychology professor at Yale who wanted to test the defense of "I was just following orders" typically used by accused Nazis
What are attitudes?
combinations of affective (emotional) and cognitive (perceptual) reactions to different stimuli
What is persuasion?
a person or group can influence the attitudes of others
What makes something more persuasive?
- coming from people who have positions of authority or expertise
- good interpersonal attractiveness
- the nature of the message (repetition, fear)
What is the elaboration likelihood model?
explains when people will be persuaded by the content of a message vs when people will be influenced by more superficial characteristics
What are message characteristics?
the features of the message itself, such as the logic and key points in the argument, the length of the argument, and its grammatical complexity
What are source characteristics?
characteristics of the person who delivers a persuasive message, such as attractiveness, credibility, and certainty
What are target characteristics?
The characteristics of the person receiving the message, such as self-esteem, intelligence, mood, and other personal factors
What are the two cognitive routes under this model?
central route and peripheral route
What is the central route?
the path of cognitive processing that involves scrutiny of message content
What is the peripheral route?
people focus on superficial or secondary characteristics of the speech or the orator, like the attractiveness of the orator, length of speech, if they are considered an expert in their field etc
--attitude change is temporary
What is cognitive dissonance?
the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change.
- attitudes and behaviors contradict each other
Who is Leon Festinger?
studied cognitive dissonance; came to conclusion that people are likely to alter their attitude to fit their behavior
What is altruism?
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Who is Kitty Genovese?
woman who was raped and murdered outside her apartment complex; neighbors witnessed but failed to act/intervene by calling the police
What is the bystander effect?
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
What is the diffusion of responsibility?
you'll work less hard at something if you assume someone else will take care of it; in the case of Kitty, the neighbors assumed that one of them would call the police and therefore failed to act
What is the equity theory?
workers evaluate their efforts vs. their rewards
What is human factors research?
deals w/ the interaction of person and machine
What is the Hawthorne effect?
the alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study due to their awareness of being observed. workers will work harder when being monitored
What is antisocial behavior?
behavior harmful to society or others
What are the two categories of antisocial behavior?
prejudice and aggression
What is prejudice?
preconceived opinion about a group of people that is not based on reason or actual experience
What is discrimination?
acting on prejudice; treating members of that group differently than other groups
What are stereotypes?
Standardized mental picture that one person or group of people holds in common about another person or group of people.
What is the outgroup homogeneity?
every member of a group other than our own is similar
What is an illusory correlation?
the perception of a relationship where none exists
ex: noticing a certain ethnic group are apprehended for crimes while ignoring the people of the same group also doing positive things for society
What is hostile aggression?
emotional and impulsive; typically induced by pain or stress
What is instrumental aggression?
aggression committed to gain something of value
What plays a role in aggression?
biological factors (hormones), environmental factors
What did Albert Bandura learn about aggression?
often times aggression is a learned behavior
What environmental factors affect aggression?
experiencing pain, being surrounded by aggressive behavior
What is dehumanization?
Treating people as cases or problems instead of as persons; treating people as less than human
Who is Phillip Zimbardo?
Stanford Prison Experiment; tested effect of role playing in subject of obedience and conformity
What was Zimbardo's experiment?
- random selection of participants and random assignment as prisoners or guards
- prisoners had numbers not names
- guards wore uniforms and mirrored glasses
- each group acted like they hated the other group
- when stripped of their individual identities, the two groups turned to mob identity and violence
- experiment ended prematurely
How can aggression be reduced?
- observation of nonaggressive models of conflict resolution
- the diffusion of aggression w/ humor or empathy