Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (47)
a military commander exercising civil power by force, usually in a limited area
a member of an upper class of society,usually made up of heredity
a person that someone is descended from
a symbol in a writing system based on pictures
a symbol in a writing system that represents a thing or an idea
a group of non-elected government officials
having title or possession by reason of birth
Mandate of Heaven
the belief that the Chinese king's right to rule came from the gods
a system of beliefs based on the teachings of Confucius
a Chinese philosophy concerned with obtaining long life and living in harmony with nature
Chinese system of beliefs which describes the way a person must rule
a Chinese philosophy that stressed the importance of laws
the responsiblity of children to respect, obey, and care for their parents
an official who watches others for correct behavior
something, such as coins or paper money, that is used as a medium of exchange; money in the form of coins or paper
the administrative service of a government
a farmer who works land owned by someone else and pays rent in cash or as a share of the crop
originally, a Chinese practice of inserting fine needles through the skin at specific points to treat disease or relieve pain
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in China
longest river in Asia
great desert and semidesert region of central asia
Yu the Great
legendary ruler in ancient China famed for his introduction of flood control, inaugurating dynastic rule in China by establishing the Xia dynasty, and for his upright moral character
earliest ruling dynasty of China
first king of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China
Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period
ancient Chinese philosopher and writer
Han Fei Zi
Chinese philosopher of the Legalist school during the Warring States period, and a prince of the state of Han
first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC
The Great Wall
collective name of a series of fortification systems generally built across the historical northern borders of China to protect and consolidate territories of Chinese states and empires against various nomadic groups of the steppe and their polities
the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141-87 BC
Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the late 2nd century BC during the Han dynasty
The Silk road
ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West
Two powerful rivers brought fertile soil to river valleys in China.
Huang He: the "yellow river"
• The Huang He carries yellow soil called loess, which gives
the river its name.
• Loess helped farmers grow food on small plots of land near
• The Huang He is also called "China's sorrow" because
unpredictable flooding has killed many people.
• The Chang Jiang carried rich soil from west to east in the
south of China.
• Farmers grew rice near the river.
Only one-tenth of the land in China can be farmed because
much of the country consists of mountains and desert.
Ancient Chinese lands were isolated from other civilizations.
• Mountains: The Himalaya are southwest of China. The Kunlun
Shan and Tian Shun cut through western China.
• Desert: The Gobi is east of the Tian Shan mountains.
The effects of China's physical isolation were:
• the Chinese developed a unique and independent culture.
• Chinese people called their land "the Middle Kingdom," and
to them it was the center of the world.
• small villages were spread wide apart and so developed
independently at first.
• Parents had the duty to love their children.
• Children had the duty to respect their parents.
• Husbands/men had the duty to care for a wife, gain an
education, and support a family.
• Wives/women had the duty to obey her husband, raise
children, and manage the family's home and finances.
Filial piety refers to children supporting and respecting their
Chinese society was divided into four social classes.
• the wealthiest and most powerful class
• owned the land
• homes were located on estates
• estates became smaller with each generation since the land
was divided equally among all male heirs
• each generation had access to less land
• most people were farmers, about nine of every ten people
• farmers rented land from aristocrats, and paid for the land
with a share of the crops grown
• with enough food, some people did not have to farm and
became artisans, or skilled workers
• crafted objects like tools, or goods for trade
• fathers taught their trade to sons
• traded goods with other cities and towns in China
• made difficult journeys to Mesopotamia to trade
• could become very wealthy, but always seen as the lowest
class in China
Chinese people created myths and legends to explain the
creation of the world. They believed gods brought good or bad
• Myth said a hero named Yü the Great dug channels to control
the Huang He's floodwaters.
• Legend said Yü also founded China's first dynasty—the Xia,
but no archeological evidence exists to support the claim.
• Similar to other civilizations, the people believed in many gods.
• People honored their ancestors and thought the ancestors
THE MANDATE OF
Zhou rulers claimed that the gods chose wise men to be kings.
• The king was responsible for pleasing the gods.
• The king must follow the Dao, or "the Way," to lead the
• If there was a bad harvest or natural disaster, the king was
blamed for displeasing the gods, and could be replaced.
Confucianism—founded by Confucius
• Confucius's ideas were that duty to the family and community
should come before one's own needs.
• Confucius believed jobs should be filled based on ability.
• His sayings were written down by students in a work called
Daoism—founded by Laozi
• Laozi's ideas were that nature and the Dao, or "the Way," are
more important than worldly possessions.
• Daoism teaches people the way to a good life.
• Daoists believed in a simple life and dependence on nature
and the Dao.
Legalism—founded by Han Fei Zi
• Han Fei Zi's ideas were that all humans are naturally evil so
they need a system of strict laws and harsh punishments.
• Aristocrats favored legalism, because it seemed to give them the
power to issue harsh punishments and not help other people.
WHO WERE THE
• The Shang dynasty built the first cities in China thousands of
• Their capital city was Anyang along the banks of the
• The Shang king served as political, military, and religious
• The Shang king appointed warlords to rule over small pieces
• Shang kings consulted the gods and their ancestors before
• Shang kings conquered land and established China's first
• Skilled workers, or artisans, crafted objects made of bronze,
silk, ivory, and jade.
• The Shang developed writing in the form of pictographs and
ideographs. These characters each represented something,
unlike languages that use alphabets based on sounds.
Shang rulers were overthrown in 1045 b.c. and the Zhou
dynasty was established.
• The Zhou dynasty ruled for more than 800 years.
• Zhou kings divided conquered lands into territories and
appointed aristocrats to rule the territories as bureaucrats.
• Bureaucrats' positions were hereditary, meaning they were
handed from father to son.
• Zhou aristocrats fought each other for power for almost 200
years in the "Period of the Warring States." This began in the
• Zhou rulers developed new systems to irrigate the land and
crops were plentiful.
• Wars between the states advanced military technology, such
as saddles and stirrups for horses.
THE QIN EMPEROR
The leader of the Qin territory created the Qin dynasty in 221
b.c. and named himself Qin Shihuangdi, which means "the First
Qin Emperor." The Qin dynasty only lasted until 206 b.c.
• Qin was a dictator with absolute power.
• He followed legalism and imposed strict laws and harsh
• He joined and strengthened walls other rulers had built for
protection in the north and extending west, called the Great
• He built a massive tomb for himself, filled with life-sized
HOW DID QIN
• Censors improved government efficiency.
• Currency increased trade, improved the economy, and
helped unify the empire.
• The rules of Chinese writing were simplified and clarified.
• Palaces, roads, and dams were built.
• A canal was built to connect central China to southern China.
• Qin sent traders to explore far into the west where they found
horses and allies.
THE HAN DYNASTY
The Han dynasty took power in 202 b.c. and ruled for over 400
• A strong Han ruler named Han Wudi created civil service
exams to fill government positions.
• The Han enjoyed peace for about 150 years.
• Literature, arts, science, and trade grew in China as a result of
the dynasty's longevity.
• Many inventions and medical advances were made in the
• The Silk Road became a major trade route to the west.
THE SILK ROAD
The Silk Road
• was the trade route to the west of China.
• was a network of trade routes from western China to the
• allowed merchants to trade silks, spices, and other luxury
items, as well as fruits, vegetables, grains, and flowers.
• spread Chinese inventions and goods to other regions.
• helped the Chinese learn more about other civilizations.
• helped spread Buddhism to China.
• spread across the Silk Road from India to China.
• promised that religious devotion could end suffering and lead
to eternal happiness.
• included ideas called the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold
• influenced the followers of Confucius and Daoists
• became one of China's major religions.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Historical Geography- Fall Final Exam
Ancient China- Copy
History World China
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR