Drugs and Behavior Exam 3

STUDY
PLAY
do women or men report higher craving when trying to quite smoking?
women
According to the U.S. Census Bureau projections (found in the lecture slides), in 2050 what group is expected to make up 30% of the population?
Hispanic
_________________ may increase use of illicit drugs by both men and women because it weakens the influence of familism.
acculturation
The convergence hypothesis refers to the idea that ____________ of men and women are becoming more similar.
drinking patterns
Church attendance negatively correlated with drinking in women of which race/ethnicity?
Black/African American
_________________ is a Latino/Hispanic concept of masculinity hypothesized as a factor that moderates drinking.
machismo
An analysis of several studies found a higher prevalence of alcohol problems in the general population among females if they had been sexually or physically abused as children. For men, the evidence about relationships between child sexual and physical abuse and alcoholism was __________________.
inconclusive
Adults' problems with alcohol consumption often involve chronic consumption. However, due to the legal inaccessibility of alcohol for underage adolescents, their problems with alcohol may be more often related to __________.
acute consumption
According to the Table 12.1, which racial/ethnic group has the lowest rate of past month alcohol use for those ages 12-17?
Asian Americans
The same dose of alcohol produces ________ BAC for older persons, in general, than for younger persons of the same weight.
greater
The marriage effect refers to the finding that lower rates of ___________ occur with married than with single person
alcohol problems
Those who start drinking before __________ are at highest risk for dependence
15
Women in industries and occupations __________________ are less likely to drink.
...
Cooper, et al., 2008 published findings on racial differences in drinking motives & problems. For Whites __________________ in adolescence more predictive of adult alcohol involvement.
enhancement motives
Lower drinking rates are found among married than among single individuals. This relationship remains after controlling for _____________.
age, gender, SES
Are homosexuals or heterosexuals less likely to be abstainers from alcohol?
homosexuals
According to the lecture slides, nicotine reduces weight gain in what sex of rats?
female
Not only might COAs drink more than NCOAs, but the time between drinking initiation-to-disorder trajectories are "telescoped". What is meant by "telescoped"?
shorter
According to table 9.1 certain childhood risk indicators (i.e. behavior problems, hyperactivity, & risky temperament) may be more prevalent in certain families. In an examination of three family types (antisocial alcoholics, nonantisocial alcoholics & controls), the same pattern for degree to which the indicator is present in preschool years was found. What was this pattern?
AL > NAAL > Control
For women, ________________ mediated the association between depression vulnerability and smoking.
negative affect reduction expectancies
In a mediation analysis by White & Widom (2008), stressful life events mediated the relationship between child abuse and substance-use problems. However, child abuse was a significant predictor of multiple variables including which of the following?
stressful life events
For both men and women, when sexual orientation is defined by sexual behavior, which of these is associated with the LOWEST rates of heavy drinking? Those who __________________________.
have never had sex
According to the lecture slides what "age of onset" range has the highest cumulative probability of lifetime alcohol dependence?
...
The Monitoring the Future survey (Figure 10.1), shows a general _________ in percent alcohol use and stable percentages for having "been drunk" for grades 8, 10, and 12
decrease
Although both women and men who had been exposed to childhood maltreatment had higher rates of antisocial personality disorder and suicide attempts, other reactions to such abuse may not be the same for male and female victims. Females may develop ____________________ with alcohol and other drugs, while males may be more likely to display _________________ responses as well as depression.
generalized anxiety and cope; violent and aggressive
What 1964 report on the health risks of cigarette smoking eventually led to a decline over much of the 1970s and 1980s for both men and women?
The Surgeon General's report
According to the U.S. Census Bureau projections (found in the lecture slides), what is the expected change in percentage of the white U.S. population between 2008 and 2050?
-20%
According to the lecture slides, which of the following is NOT one of the three drugs in which Native Americans have the highest rates of use?
marijuana
According to the trends over 26 years in rate of drinking five or more drinks in the past 2 weeks, college student consistently had higher drinking rates compared to __________.
Age matched noncollege students and 12th-grade students
For men, there was no association between depression vulnerabilities and smoking or ________________.
negative affect reduction tendencies
Native American __________________ use may be linked to religious use of peyote.
hallucinogen
Children with __________ rate of development of behavioral control have the earliest age of drinking onset.
slower
In a temporal sense, it is undoubtedly true that most users of illicit drugs started with alcohol, tobacco, and/or marijuana simply because of their easier availability and lower cost. According to the text, is there evidence for a pharmacological gateway?
...
Adolescent COAs have lower self-esteem and more depression compared to __________.
NCOAs
Nondrinking wives as well as those who more often drank when their spouse did not experienced less marital satisfaction compared to __________.
wives who drank with their husbands
Divorce might lead to less drinking due to __________.
no longer needing to cope with a "bad" spouse
Assortative mating refers to mate selection based on ___________.
similarity of characteristics
According to Table 10.1 2006 data, which of the following has the LOWEST rates of lifetime prevalence for 10th graders?
marijuana
Acculturation is the process by which immigrants learn and adopt the customs of _______________________.
the host culture
Smoking styles for women are discussed in the lecture slides. Which of the following was not one of the style differences mentioned?
...
According to the 2006 NSDUH Alcohol use data, men are more likely to binge and ____________ than women.
drink heavily
Some individuals with Asian heritage have altered alcohol metabolism because they have a variant of the _____________ gene that produces and enzyme involved in metabolizing alcohol.
ALDH2
According to the lecture slides what "age of onset" range has the highest cumulative probability of lifetime alcohol dependence?
11-12 years
The overall conclusions of the study on alcohol involvement and intimate partner violence presented in the lecture slides (McKinney, Caetano, Rodriquez, & Okoro, 2010) were that alcohol involvement of either or both in the couple increases the risk of severe IPV. Findings also suggest female alcohol use may play an important role in __________________.
determining the severity of IPV, MFPV or FMPV
According to the Table 12.1, which racial/ethnic group has the highest rate of past month alcohol use for those ages 18-25?
whites/non-Hispanics
The prefrontal cortex continues to develop into the _____________.
early 20's
According to a study discussed in class on Mexican-American college students, for men, as acculturative status increased, drinking decreased; for women, as acculturative status increased, drinking _________________.
increased
Divorce might lead to more drinking due to ____________.
drinking being used as a coping motive
what potential methodological problems are encountered in research pertaining to sexual abuse and alcohol dependence?
there are variation in the definition of sexual abuse and degrees and timing of abuse, presence or absence of control groups, lack of agreement in the definition of alcohol misuse or dependence
what explanations have been offered to account for the correlations between alcohol and domestic violence
nonviolent and violent alcoholics may have different drinking patterns, binge drinkers are more likely to be violent than nondrinkers, domestic violence related to alcohol abuse may be due to more attention to cues that instigate aggression
there is evidence that shows the degree of similarity of drinking between parent and child may depend on
whether one is comparing a parent and child of the same as opposed to opposite sex
a distinction between episodic drinkers and steady drinkers show that drinking comes to serve as a ___ for facilitating problem solving among steady drinkers, while functioning as a means of ___ for episodic drinkers
strategy, avoidance
what has been found in relation to divorce and drinking
drinking is reduced due to divorce, drinking increases due to divorce
studies of COAs have shown
sons of alcoholics drank significantly more heavily and developed more extensive alcohol dependence than daughters of alcoholics, COAs had higher levels of depression and lower levels of self esteem, COAs had lower levels of perceived support
while research has shown that parental alcohol use has detrimental effects on their children, research should also focus on why some children have also shown ___
resiliency
marriage effect in marriage and alcohol studies refers to the ___ drinking rates found among ___ than with ___ individuals
lower, married, single
consistent with clinical sample, national sample findings revealed that
after controlling for age, ethnicity, and parental education, women with histories of childhood sexual abuse were more likely than women without such histories to report recent alcohol use
what is unlikely view families dealing with an alcoholic may take?
family views alcoholism as coping strategy for short-term solutions
according to the 2006 NSDUH study, cigarette smoking was highest for which of the following age groups?
21-25
about 1/3 of adolescents and young adults fall into which drinking group
moderate
how does cohort effect pose a problem for research regarding alcohol and drugs
since different age cohorts grow up under different historical circumstances, their drug use may be a reflection of differing attitudes and values toward drugs held in those different times
the period effect refers to the influence of the ___ in which the person lived
historical era
what percent of adolescents fall into the late onset heavy drinkers
0.1
increases in frequency of drinking over the college years was strongly associated with residence in a fraternity and sorority which suggests that such organizations have
drinker friendly environments, selection process that chooses students with interests in drinking at parties
alcohol studies have shown that early age of drinking is a ___ rather than a ___ factor on subsequent alcohol dependence
marker, causal
research shows that adolescents who come from ___ families demonstrate lower alcohol use even after controlling for race/ethnicity, family income, and age
2 parent
the term gateway drugs implies that
use of drugs such as alcohol and tobacco opens the way to use of illicit drugs and involvement in other forms of socially deviant behavior
comparing present data with information collected at an earlier date would be considered a
retrospective longitudinal design
an analysis of population surveys from 10 major countries has found which of the following consistent gender effects regarding alcohol consumption
men exceed women in their average drinking frequency
why must the neurophysiology of nicotine be considered when examining the effects of nicotine on men and women
pharm. agents used to treat smoking may have different effects in women than in men, nicotine intakes differ between men and women, chronic nicotine use may affect female reproductive endocrinology making smoking less reinforcing for women
what factors would influence alcohol consumption in women leading to inaccurate estimates of alcoholism
proportion of body fat to water, weight
according to a longitudinal study on the relationship between depression and drinking for men and women, it was found that
for women, more alcohol consumption predicted less depression; for men, depression predicted less alcohol consumption
convergence hypothesis is the view that rapidly changing ___ roles in the past generation may have led more ___ to drink in styles similar to those of ___ suggests that the gender gap should have ___ over this period
sex, women, men, decreased
what is true of drinking habits of older vs younger women
younger women drink more frequently than older women
what is shown to have highest comorbidity with drug dependence
depression
how do measurement biases affect studied comparing drinking of men and women
indicators of alcohol problems such as fights, public intoxication, and arrests while intoxicated may be more applicable to males than to females
what is said to be an underlying factor for problem drinking among women
sex role conflict, stress role of multiple sex roles, sex role deprivation stress
sexually victimized women have been shown to have ___ drinking problems after their experience with sexual abuse
more
race and ethnicity often fail to control for what when examining drug use
gender and SES
studies show that acculturation and Hispanic drinking do not always have the same relationship and this may depend on
relocation site and national origin
what has been found to be a protective factor against alcohol abuse for African Americans
parental influence on choice of friends
among asian community, which has highest levels of abstainers
chinese males
the facial flushing created by vasodilation due to alcohol is an indication that alcohol has a stronger effect on people of ___ decent
asian
what has been found to be a protective factor against alcohol abuse for asians
parental disapproval of drinking
studies for Hispanics show which of the following factors to be a factor in the amount and frequency of alcohol consumption
regional differences, subgroups, age
___ affluent African American men reported ___ adverse drinking problems than white men, while affluent white men showed ___ drinking problems
fewer, more, more
drinking among native americans has shown that while there is heavy drinking, there are also high rates of abstinence. native americans living in cities have shown to have ___ drinking levels
higher
in general it has been found that increased acculturation leads to more drinking and smoking for ___, but it has been associated with declines for ___
women, men
drinking might ___ inhibitions so that you meet someone you might not have without drinking
lower
drinking is associate with ___ sexual behaviors
risky; lead to unplanned pregnancies
heavier drinking can lead to __ or ___ marriage
late, no
assortative mating
choose marriage partners based on similarities; similarity in attitudes about drinking and in drinking behavior is relevant to choosing a partner
marriage effect
drinking rates for married individuals lower than those for singles; not due to age, gender, SES; change in lifestyle may be explanation; light drinkers marry sooner, could explain lower drinking rate for married individuals
husbands have ___ effect on wives drinking
stronger
marriage ___ chances of recovery of alcoholsim
increases
male to female IPV %
13.6
female to male IPV %
18.2
higher level of husband's drinking associated with ___ risk of IPV
increased
married men in treatment for alcoholism ___ xs as likely to commit IPV than controls
4
women diagnosed with alcoholism may be victims of ___ IPV
more
mild only violence
those who reported having thrown something; pushed, grabbed, shoved or slapped their partner were classified as exposed to this
sever violence
those exposed to more serious type of violence
severe violence ___ when alcohol involved
doubles; men more likely to commit severe
MFPV
3 times more likely to be severe if either, 2 times for men, 4 times for women
FMPV
1.8 times more likely to be severe if either, 2.5 times for men, 1.8 for women
alcohol problems can ___ marital satisfaction and lead to divorce
reduce; per capita increase 1L/year associated with 20% increase in divorce rate
divorce can lead to more drinking/drug use because
coping mechanism, change in roles/lifestyles
divorce can lead to reduced drinking because
no longer need to cope with bad marriage, problem drinking spouse, sexual dysfunction
when husbands and wives differ on ___ they are likely to report significantly lower relationship quality
any alcohol use
couples who are dissimilar in heavier drinking, frequent intoxication, and drug use report ___ marital satisfaction
lower
COAs
at higher risk for subsequent problems with substances, risk from both genes and environment, poor parenting (monitoring, unpredictability, less warmth/sensitivity, model alcohol use behavior, availability of alcohol/drugs); lower self esteem, more depression (coping with drinking)
telescoping
time from first drink to onset of alcohol use disorder shorter for COAs; stronger is parents also had ASPD or depression
child abuse
COA higher risk, alcoholic parents might abuse/less able to protect from abusers, adult outcomes of childhood victimization may depend on type of abuse and on which parent was abuser and race/ethnicity
female victims of childhood sexual abuse ___ likely to develop alcohol problems
more; evidence for males not clear
stressful life events mediate
child abuse and substance abuse problems
those who have experienced higher levels of childhood trauma are ___ impulsive
more
higher levels of childhood trauma are associated with ___ performance on a decision making task
worse
2 ways to study COAs
ID adults with SUD and ask about family of origin, follow at risk individuals across development
AAL
higher family history of alcoholism, lower intellectual functioning, more psychopathology
children with ___ rate of development of ___ have earlier age of drinking onset
slower, behavioral control
longitudinal studies
difficult/costly but useful in IDing risk factors for SUD, crucial in examining developmental trajectories
since about 1976, prevalence rates of alcohol use for 12th graders have basically
decreased
internalizing and externalizing behaviors and comorbid mental illness associated with
increased risk for adolescent substance use problems
cultural influence on ___ seems to be important factor in use patterns
risk perception; target of prevention efforts
prefrontal cortex involved in
executive functions
executive functions
complex processes by which an individual optimizes performance when situation involves multiple cognitive processes; auto vs controlled behavior, controlling impulses and emotions
executive function are useful when situation
require planning or decision making, are danger or difficult, require error correction or trouble shooting, require novel or not well learned responses, involve habitual responses
adolescent risk assessment
adolescents think logically, executive function not fully developed, behavior of adolescents riskier when with friends
brain development
prefrontal cortex continues to develop into early 20s, substance use may interfere with normal brain development
about ___ of 8th graders (13-14) report having drunk alcohol
1/3
the ___ in adolescents is not fully developed, which is one reason that they engage in a lot of risky behavior
prefrontal cortex
those who start drinking before age ___ are at higher risk for dependence
15
___ increases the chances of problems that can interfere with success in college
binge drinking
binge drinking by others increases the chances of
problems that can interfere with success in college
rapid growth in number of americans over age
60
same dose of alcohol produces ___ BAC for older persons because they have less body water
greater; interactions with prescriptions drugs may be problematic, retirement may uncover alcohol problems
highest percentage of heavy alcohol use among college students can be found in which group
U.S. males
more ___ than ___ college students drink, but more ___ college students drink heavily
canadian, U.S., U.S.
what percent of men and women meet criteria for alcohol dependence in lifetime
18.6% men, 8.4% women
men and women have different issues with drinking
drinking motives and patterns, alcohol metabolism, risk for victimization, risk for FAS
___ more likely to binge and drink heavily
men
true or false: there is telescoping for younger birth cohorts
true
women working in ___ and ___ jobs are more likely to drink
gender balanced and male dominated; more contact with men, coping, less bound to gender roles, self selection bias
according to the 2006 NSDUH men are much more liely than women to report ___ alcohol use
past month binge
men and women have ___ rates of any time lifetime alcohol use
equal
___ are more likely to be former drinkers
women
___ have more alcohol related problems than
men
___ have heavier alcohol consumption patterns
men
___ new cigarette smokers every day
6500; most under 18
rates of past month cigarette use among 12-17 year olds is
declining; no real gender difference
___ more likely to use tobacco
men; some convergence, fewer women quitting
___ cancer is leading cause of cancer death both both men and women
lung
women smokers
lower tar, filtered, smoke fewer, inhale less deeply, telescoping, fewer quit attempts, stay abstinent for shorter periods, rate of relapse higher
young ___ report higher craving when trying to quit smoking
women
nicotine reduces weight gain in ___ rats, but not in ___
female, males
for women, ___ mediated association between depression vulnerability and smoking
expectancies; no association for men
the decrease in overall tobacco use from 2002 to 2010 among youths aged 12-17 is mainly due to a reduction in the use of
cigarettes
racism
the belief that the genetic factors which constitute race are a primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race
for purposes of the Census, ethnicity is based only on
Hispanic, Latin or Spanish origin; heritage, nationality group, lineage or country of birth person/parents/ancestors before arrival to U.S.; can be any race
Hispanics/Latino Americans
currently 15% of population, heterogeneous group; Mexican Americans have higher rates of alcohol problems than other Hispanics (more women abstainers than whites)
machismo
cultural value emphasizing masculine traits; encourages drinking for men, but discourages drinking for women
___ moderates the effect of acculturation on drinking in Mexican-American college students
gender
acculturation
changes away from behaviors or values from the country of origin for immigrant groups
familism
important cultural value for Hispanics; focus on family unit (family pride, strong relationships between children and parents, time spent with family); family structure defined by large kinship, living nearby with regular contact, interdependence of daily activities; protective of substance abuse
African Americans
currently 14% of population; lower rates of drinking in past 30 days and for binge drinking for Blacks age 12-20 than for whites; black women more likely to abstain
church attendance negatively correlated with drinking in ___ but not ___ women
black, white
low SES and prejudice associated with
problem drinking across all racial groups
for whites ___ motives in adolescence more predictive of adult alcohol involvement
enhancement
for black ___ motives in adolescence more predictive of adult alcohol involvement
coping
alcohol use trajectories across development differ among white and black youth. The Cooper study showed that the trajectories were associated with
drinking motives
most commonly used illicit drug in every ethnic group
marijuana
asian americans have lowest use rates of
cigarette, overall illicit drug, marijuana, cocaine, non-med use prescription drugs
native americans have highest rates of
cigarette, hallucinogen, inhalant use
native american hallucinogen use may be linked to religious use of
peyote
gay males and lesbians ___ likely to be abstainers from alcohol
less
lesbians appear to be at ___ risk for problem drinking
higher; more likely to currently smoke and drink more frequently and in larger quantities
for both men and women, when sexual orientation is defined by actual sexual behavior, what is associated with the highest rates of illicit drug use is the past year
those who have sex with both males and females
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