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Anatomy and Physiology 2- Final Exam
Terms in this set (130)
the main component of cytosol is?
which of these is an inclusion, not an organelle?
which of the following is a function of a plasma membrane protein?
molecular transport through the membrane
crenation is likely to occur in blood cells immersed in?
a hypertonic solution
In certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in ________.
the smooth ER
contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function
A cell engulfing a relatively large particle will likely utilize ________.
true or false, each daughter cell resulting from mitotic cell division has the exactly same genetic composition?
true or false, osmosis is the passive movement of water but it follows almost completely opposite laws of physics when compared to the diffusion of ions or other small particles.
are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action.
when working the sodium potassium pump results in...(whats relative to the cell division)
more K+ inside
salts are always______.
which of the following elements is necessary for proper conduction of nerve impulses?
In general, the lipids that we refer to as oils have ________.
unsaturated fatty acids
the genetic information is coded in DNA by the________.
sequence of nucleotides
carbohydrates are stored in the liver and skeletal muscles in the form of_________.
the study of large body structures, visible to the naked eye, such as the heart is called____.
histology would be defined as the study of______.
when a sarcomere contracts and thin filaments move over thick filaments you would expect to see________.
the I bands to appear smaller
During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?
Rigor mortis occurs because ________.
no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules
which of the following surrounds the individual muscle cell?
the sliding filament model of contraction involves______.
actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlapping
although the anatomical parts of the muscle work together to give it it's characteristics, which of the following proteins listed below would be most associated with the characteristics of contractility?
thick (myosin) filaments
what is the role of tropomyosin in the skeletal muscles?
tropomyosin serves as a contraction inhibitor by blocking the myosin binding sites on the actin molecules
Prevention of water loss is a necessary function for life that would best fit in the category of ________.
which of the following describe the operation of the heart and blood vessels?
It is wise to study anatomy alongside with physiology because ________.
physiology is only explainable in terms of the underlying anatomy
The body cavities that protect the nervous system are located in the ____ cavity.
what is a vertical section through the body dividing it into anterior and posterior regions called?
what type of chemical bond can form between an atom with 11 protons and an atom with 17 protons?
Tendons are strong, rope-like structures that connect skeletal muscle to bone. Which of the following proteins would provide strength to a tendon?
how many phosphates would AMP have attached to it?
Starch is the stored carbohydrate in plants, while ________ is the stored carbohydrate in animals.
With a family history of cardiovascular disease, which toast spread would be considered the most "heart healthy?"
If a cell is selectively reducing the concentration of a particular enzyme in the extracellular fluid it will likely utilize ________.
which of the following would not be restricted (limited) by low levels of ATP?
Small secondary lymphoid organs, which cluster along lymphatic vessels, are termed ________.
lymph transport involves all of the following EXCEPT?
smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls
the lymphatic capillaries are......
more permeable than blood capillaries
Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.
efferent lymphatic vessels
select the correct statement about lymph transport.
lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles
which of the following does not describe actions of interferon (IFN)?
IFN can penetrate the viral capsid and destroy the virus
brings more leukocytes to the sight of infection
membrane attack complex (MAC) kills by______.
disrupting the selective permeability of a bacteria's plasma membrane.
the oxygen binding protein found in muscle cells is______.
most skeletal muscle contain___.
a mixture of fiber types
When a sarcomere contracts and thin filaments move over thick filaments you would expect to see ________.
the I bands to appear smaller
creatine phosphate functions in the muscle cell by___.
storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to re-synthesize ATP
In an isotonic contraction, the muscle ________.
changes in length and moves the "load"
muscle tone is____.
a state of sustained partial contraction
immediately following the arrival of the stimulus at a skeletal muscle cell there is a short period called the ______ period during which the neurotransmitter is released by exocytosis, diffuses across the synaptic cleft, and binds to its receptors.
During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?
What structure in skeletal muscle cells functions in calcium storage?
Which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate?
An advantage of innate immunity is ________.
its barriers that prevent pathogens from entering into the body
all of the following are true of the classical pathway of complement activation except one. select the one answer that does not describe the classical pathway of complement activation?
it activates T-helper cells by presenting antigen to them
All but one of the following occur during the inflammatory response. Select the example below that does not describe the process of inflammation.
vasoconstriction will prevent excessive blood loss due to the injury
which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?
replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.
innate immune defenses include______.
interfere with viral replication within cells
what is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into left and right called?
the term that describes the back of the elbow?
You are asked to take a person's heart rate at the popliteal pulse point. You will look for this pulse ________.
on the posterior side of the knee
in which quadrant of the abdominopelvic cavity is the stomach located?
the left upper quadrant
what is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior regions called?
When a baby suckles at its mother's breast the stimulus at the breast is sent to the mother's brain (a region called the hypothalamus). The brain responds by releasing hormones to stimulate the production and the ejection of milk from the breast. This helps the newborn to receive nourishment and encourages more suckling. This example is best described as a ________.
You are told to take an axillary temperature on a small child. You will place the thermometer ________.
in the armpit
the term hallux refers to the_____.
which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?
Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.
conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.
larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
the primary function of cellular respiration is to_______.
break down food molecules and generate ATP
the term basal metabolic rate reflects the_____.
energy the body needs to preform only its most essential activities
the term metabolism is best defined as____.
the sum of all biochemical reactions in the body
Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.
breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
oxdation reduction reactions_____.
may involve the loss of a hydrogen and electrons
which of the following is a source of complex carbohydrates?
starting with glucose, how many NADH is produced in glycolysis and kreb's cycle?
Activated T cells and macrophages release ________ to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.
Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________.
an advantage to adaptive immunity is______.
its memory cells that provide quicker, larger and more efficient immune response upon second exposure to an antigen
which of the following is not a role of activated complement?
prevention of immediate hypersensitivity reactions
which of the following is not a type of T cell?
the common name for nasal vibrissae is_______.
the movement of air into and out of the lungs is known as the pulmonary _______.
in clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?
which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
select the correct statement about the pharynx.
The pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube drains into the nasopharynx.
three scroll like mucosa covered projections are collectively known as the nasal?
the loudness of a person's voice depends on the______.
force with which air rushes across the vocal chords.
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by_____.
producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
which of the statements below does not describe antigens?
antigens only come from microbes
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.
ciliated mucous lining in the nose
the main branch that separates the trachea into the left and right bronchi is known as the_______.
carina of trachea
which of the following maintains the patency of the trachea?
C-shaped cartilage rings
The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
as the direct initiator of the cough reflex
which of the following anchors the vocal chords?
When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
the overall process of moving nutrients out of the gastro-intestinal tract in to the blood is known as___.
peristaltic waves are____.
waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of_______.
the lamina propria is composed of_______.
loose connective tissue
the chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called______.
the mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located _______.
in the walls of tract organs
the walls of the alveoli are composed of the two types of cells, type 1 and types 2 alveolar cells. the function of type 2 alveolar cells is to_______.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.
the relationship between gas pressure and gas volume is described by______.
which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
as bicarbonate ions in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
which of the following refers to the movement of air into and out of the lungs?
the main site of gas exchange is the ______.
which statement about CO2 is false?
More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
the functional and structural unit of the kidney is the ___.
which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubules?
the fluid in the glomerular capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ____.
the filtration membrane includes all except______.
the fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it _______.
stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
net filtration would decrease
which one is not a part of an amino acid?
vitamin D is what form of lipid?
salivary amylase is an enzyme produced by the salivary glands hat breaks down carbohydrates. what will happen to this enzyme as it follows the food into the stomach where the ph drops to 2.5?
the enzyme will denature and become inactive
which item is not found in the DNA?
true or false, holoenzymes are composed of apoenzymes and a cofactor?
how many phosphates does AMP have attached to it?
identify the item produced by the anabolic process of dehydration synthesis?
which of the following is incorrectly matched?
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