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Finals 2

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The geologically oldest mountains in North America are
the Appalachians
The Indian peoples of the New World
were divided into many diverse cultures speaking more than two thousand different languages
The Iroquois Confederacy remained a strong political and military influence until
The American Revolution
Among the important forces that first stimulated European interest in trade and discovery was
the Christian crusaders who brought back a taste for the silks and spices of Asia
Among the most important American Indian products to spread to the Old World were
foodstuffs such as maize, beans, and tomatoes
The primary staples of Indian agriculture were
maize beans and squash
the number of Indians in North America at the time of Columbus arrived was approximately
twenty million
Before Columbus arrived, the only Europeans to have temporarily visited North American were
the Norse
The Portuguese were the first to enter the slave trade and establish large-scale plantation using slave labor in
the Atlantic sugar islands
Much of the impetus for Spanish exploration and pursuit of glory in the early 1500's came from Spain's recent
national unification and expulsion of the Muslim Moors
A crucial political development that paved the way for the European colonization of America was
the rise of the centralized national monarchies such as that of Spain
The primary reason for the drastic decline in the Indian population after the encounter with the Europeans was
the Indians' lack of resistance to European diseases such as smallpox and malaria
Cortés and his men were able to conquer the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán partly because
the Aztec ruler Montezuma believed that Cortés was a god whose return had been predicted
The primary early colonial competitor with Spain in the New World was
Portugal
The belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good is called
the Black Legend
Ferdinand and Isabella
Financiers and beneficiaries of Columbus's voyages to the New World
Cortés and Pizarro
Spanish conquerors of great Indian civilizations
Lake Bonneville
Inland sea left by melting glaciers whose remnant is the Great Salt Lake
Días and da Gama
Portuguese navigators who sailed around the African coast
Columbus
Italian-born explorer who thought that he had arrived off the coast of Asia rather than on unknown continents
Malinche
Female Indian slave who served as interpreter for Cortés
Montezuma
Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conquerors
Hiawatha
Legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy
Tenochtitlán
Wealthy capital of the Aztec Empire
St. Augustine
Founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in United States territory
John Cabot
Italian born navigator sent by English to explore North America coast in 1498
Junipero Serra
Franciscan missionary who settled California
After decades of religious turmoil, Protestants finally gained permanent dominance in England after the succession to the throne of
Queen Elizabeth I
Imperial England and English soldiers developed a contemptuous attitude toward "natives" partly through their colonizing experiences in
Ireland
England's victory over the Spanish Armada gave it
dominance of the Atlantic Ocean and a vibrant sense of nationalism
At the time of the first colonization efforts, England
was undergoing rapid economic and social transformations
Many of the early Puritan settlers of America were
uprooted sheep farmers from eastern and western England
England's first colony at Jamestown
was saved from failure by John Smith's leadership and by John Rolfe's introduction of tobacco
Representative government was first introduced to America in the colony of
Virginia
One important difference between the founding of the Virginia and Maryland colonies was that
Virginia was founded mainly as an economic venture, while Maryland was intended partly to secure religious freedom for persecuted Roman Catholics
After the Act of Toleration in 1649, Maryland provided religious freedom for all
Protestants and Catholics
The primary reason that no new colonies were founded between 1634 and 1670 was
the civil war in England
The early conflicts between English settlers and the Indians near Jamestown laid the basis for
the forced separation of the Indians into the separate territories of the "reservation system"
In colonial English-Indian relations, the term "middle ground" referred to
the cultural zone where Indians and whites were forced to accommodate one another by shared practices that included intermarriage
After the defeat of the coastal Tuscarora and Yamasee Indians by North Carolina in 1711-1715
the powerful Creeks, Cherokees, and Iroquois remained in the Appalachian Mountains as a barrier against white settlement
Most of the early white settlers in North Carolina were
religious dissenters and poor whites fleeing aristocratic Virginia
The high-minded philanthropists who founded the Georgia colony were especially interested in the causes of
prison reform and avoiding slavery
Powhatan
Indian leader who ruled tribes in the James River area of Virginia
Raleigh and Gilbert
Elizabethan courtiers who failed in their attempts to found New World colonies
Roanoke
The failed "lost colony" founded my Sir Walter Raleigh
Smith and
Leaders who rescued Jamestown colonists from the "starving time"
VirginiRolfea
Colony that established a House of Burgesses in 1619
Maryland
Founded as a haven for Roman Catholics
Lord De La Warr
Harsh military governor of Virginia who employed "Irish tactics" against the Indians
Jamaica and Barbados
British West Indian sugar colonies where large-scale plantations and slavery took root
Lord Baltimore
The Catholic aristocratic who sought to build a sanctuary for his fellow believers
South Carolina
Colony that turned to disease-resistant African slaves for labor in its extensive rice plantations
North Carolina
Colony that was called "a vale of humility between two mountains of conceit"
James Oglethorpe
Philanthropic soldier-statesman who founded the Georgia colony
Elizabeth I
The unmarried ruler who led England to national glory
Jamestown
Riverbank site where Virginia Company settlers planted the first permanent English colony
Georgia
founded as a refuge for debtors by philanthropists
The principal motivation shaping the earliest settlement in New England was
religious commitment and devotion
Compared with the Plymouth Colony, the Massachusetts Bay Colony was
larger and more prosperous economically
One reason that the Massachusetts Bay Colony was not a true democracy is that
political offices were dominated by the clergy
The most distinctive feature of the Rhode Island Colony was that
it enjoyed the most complete religious freedom of all the English colonies
Before the first English settlements in New England, Indians in the region had been devastated by
intertribal conflicts caused by disputes over hunting grounds
The Indian tribe that first encountered the Pilgrim colonists in New England were the
Wampanoags
The Puritan missionary efforts to convert Indians to Christianity were
weak and mostly unsuccessful
King Philip's War represented
the last major Indian effort to halt New Englanders' encroachment on their lands
The primary value of the New England Confederation lay in
providing the first small step on the road to intercolonial cooperation
The event that sparked the collapse of the Dominion of New England was
the Glorious Revolution in England
the Dutch Colony of New Netherland
was harshly and undemocratically governed
The short-lived colony conquered by Dutch New Netherland in 1655 was
New Sweden
William Penn's colony of Pennsylvania
actively sought settlers from Germany and other non-British countries
Besides Pennsylvania, Quakers were also heavily involved in the early settlement of both
New Jersey and Delaware
The middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
had more ethnic diversity than either New England or the southern colonies
Martin Luther
German monk who began Protestant Reformation
John Calvin
Reformer whose religious ideas inspired English Puritans, Scotch Presbyterians, French Huguenots, and Dutch Reformed
Massasoit
Wampanoag chieftain who befriended English colonists
Plymouth
Small colony that eventually merged into Massachusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony whose government sought to enforce God's law on believers and unbelievers alike
John Winthrop
Promoter of Massachusetts Bay as a holy "city upon a hill"
Great Puritan Migration
Mass flight by religious dissidents from the persecutions of Archbishop Laud and Charles I
General Court
Representative assembly of Massachusetts Bay
Puritans
Dominant religious group in Massachusetts Bay
Quakers
Religious group persecuted in Massachusetts and New York but not in Pennsylvania
Anne Hutchinson
Religious dissenter convicted of the heresy of antinomianism
Roger Williams
Radical founder of the most tolerant New England colony, Providence
King Philip
Indian leader who waged an unsuccessful war against New England
Peter Stuyvesant
Conqueror of New Sweden who later lost New Netherland to the English
William Penn
Founder of the most tolerant and democratic of the middle colonies, Pennsylvania
For most of their early history, the colonies of Maryland and Virginia
contained for more men than women
The primary beneficiaries of the "headright" system were
landowners who paid the transatlantic passage for indentured servants
The primary cause of Bacon's Rebellion was
the poverty and discontentment of many single young men unable to acquire land
African slavery became the prevalent form of labor in the 1680's when
planters were no longer able to rely on white indentured servants as a labor force
The culture that developed among the slaves in the English colonies of North America was
a combination of several African and American cultures
Political and economic power in the southern colonies was dominated by
wealthy planters
Because there were few urban centers in the colonial south
a professional class of lawyers and financiers was slow to develop
Puritan lawmakers in New England prevented married women from having property rights because
they feared that separate property rights for women would undercut the unity of married couples.
In New England, elementary education
was mandatory for any town with more than fifty families
The Congregational Church of the Puritans contributed to
the development of basic democracy in the New England town meeting
In contrast to the Chesapeake Bay colonist, those in New England
enjoyed longer lives and more stable families
The focus of much of New England's politics, religion, and education was the institution of
the town
The "Half-Way Covenant" provided
baptism but not "full communion" to people who had not had a conversion experience
Those people accused of being witches in Salem were generally
from families associated with Salem's burgeoning market company
English settlers greatly changed the character of the New England environment by
their extensive introduction of livestock
Chesapeake
Virginia-Maryland bay area, site of the earliest colonial settlements
Indentured Servants
Primary laborers in early southern colonies until the 1680s
Nathaniel Bacon
Agitator who led poor former indentured servants and frontiersmen on a rampage against Indians and colnial government
Governor Berkeley
Colonial Virginia official who crushed rebels and wreaked cruel revenge
Royal African Company
Organization whose loss of the slave trade monopoly in 1698 led to free-enterprise expansion of the business
Middle passage
Experience for which human beings were branded and chained, and which only 80 percent survived
Ringshout
West African religious rite, retained by African-Americans, in which participants responded to the shouts of a preacher
New York City slave revolt of 1712
Major middle-colonies rebellion that caused thirty-three deaths
Lees, Fitzhughs, and Washingtons
Some of the "FFVs" who controlled the HOuse of Burgesses in colonial Virginia
"New England conscience"
The legacy of Puritan religion among later generations of Americans
Harvard
The oldest college in America, originally based on the Puritan commitment to an educated ministry
William and Mary
The oldest college in the south, founded in 1793
Half-Way Covenant
Helped erase the earlier Puritan distinction between the converted "elect" and other members of society
Salem Witch Trials
Phenomena started by adolescent girls' accusations that ended with the deaths of 19 people
Leisler's Rebellion
Small New York revolt of 1689-1691 that reflected class antagonism between landlords and merchants
The primary reason for the spectacular growth of America's population in the eighteenth century was
the natural fertility of the population
German settlement in the colonies was especially heavy in
Pennsylvania
The Scots-Irish eventually became concentrated especially in
the frontier areas
Compared with the 17th century, American colonial society in the 18th century showed
greater gaps in wealth and status between rich and poor
The most honored professional in colonial America was
clergyman
The primary source of livelihood for most colonial American's was
agriculture
Indians and African Americans shared in the common American experience of
creating new cultures and societies our of the mingling of diverse ethnic groups
an unfortunate group of involuntary immigrants who ranked even below indentured servants on the American social scale were
convicts and paupers
The "triangular trade" involved the sale of rum, molasses, and slaves among the ports of
New England, Africa, and the West Indies
The passage of British restrictions on trade encouraged colonial merchants to
find ways to smuggle and otherwise evade the law by trading with other countries
Besides offering rest and refreshment, colonial taverns served an important function as centers of
news and political opinion
The Anglican Church suffered in colonial America because of
its poorly qualified clergy and close ties with British authorities
the 2 denominations that enjoyed the status of "established" churches in various colonies were the
Anglicans and Congregationalists
Among the many important results of the Great Awakening was that it
broke down sectional boundaries and created a greater sense of common American identity
A primary weapon used by colonial legislatures in their conflicts with royal governors was
using their power of the purse to withhold the governor's salery
Philadelphia
Leading city of the colonies; home of Benjamin Franklin
African-Americans
largest non-English group in the colonies
Scots-Irish
Group that settled the frontier, made whiskey, and hated the British and other governmental authorities
Paxton Boys and Regulators
Scots-Irish frontiersmen who protested against colonial elites of Pennsylvania and North Carolina
Patrick Henry
Eloquent lawyer-orator who argued in defense of colonial rights
Molasses Act
Attempt by British authorities to squelch colonial trade with French West Indies
Anglican church
Established religion in southern colonies and New York; weakened by lackadaisical clergy and too-close ties with British crown
Jonathan Edwards
Brilliant New England theologian who instigated the Great Awakening
George Whitefield
Itinerant British evangelist who spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies
Phillis Wheatley
Former slave who became a poet at an early age
Benjamin Franklin
Author, scientist, printer, "the first civilized American"
John Peter Zenger
Colonial printer whose case helped begin freedom of the press
Quakers
Dominant religious group in colonial Pennsylvania, criticized by others for their attitudes towards Indians
Baptists
Nonestablished religious group that benefited from the Great Awakening
John Singleton Copley
Colonial painter who studied and worked in Britain