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39 terms

Chp. 10 Bio test

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virulent
disease-causing
transformation
transfer of genetic material from one cell to another
bacteriophages
viruses that infect bacteria
deoxyribose
sugar in DNA
nitrogenous base
contains nitrogen and carbon atoms and is a base (accepts hydrogen atoms)
purines
adenine and guanine
pyrimidines
thymine, cytosine, and uracil
base-pairing rules
C to G, A to T
complementary base pairs
C-G, A-T
base sequence
order of nitrogenous bases on a chain
helicase
separate DNA strands by breaking hydrogen bonds
dna replication
DNA is copied in a cell before it divides
replication fork
y-shaped region that is created when 2 strands separate from each other
dna polymerase
add complementary nucteotides (found floating in the nucleus) to the original strands
semi-conservative replication
each of the new DNA molecules has kept one of the two original DNA strands
mutation
change in the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule (can disrupt an important cell function)
ribonucleic acid
(RNA) Copied DNA. One strand, contains uracil
transcription
corresponding RNA strand forms
translation
RNA forms the protein
mrna
carries message to ribosome
trna
bonds to amino acids in the cytoplasm
rrna
makes ribosomes
protein synthesis
forming proteins based on DNA and carried out by RNA
ribose
sugar in RNA
rna polymerase
enzyme that binds to gene's promoter
promoter
specific nucleotide sequence of DNA when RNA polymerase binds and starts transcription
termination signal
specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene
genetic code
rules that relate how a sequence of nitrogenous basis responds to an amino acid
codon
3-nucleotide sequence in mRNA that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start or stop signal
stop codons
certain sequences of nucleotides in mRNA
anticodon
three nucleotides on RNA that are complementary to the codons
genome
complete genetic content
chargof
1949. A-T, C-G, No U in DNA. Discovered DNA was a molecule.
griffith and avery
1900's. used BACTERIA viruent into a non-effected bacteria, in which the noninfected bacteria was then filled will virulent DNA and made you sick
hershey and chase
VIRUSES
watson and crick
1953. Proposed structure for DNA
nucleolus
what forms when RNA stays in the nucleus instead of moving to the cytoplasm?
nucleus
transcription takes place...
cytoplasm
translation takes place..