India

Wabler, 2nd quarter
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Terms in this set (...)

monsoon
seasonal wind
Vedas
religious writings, main source of information about ancient India
Brahmin
highest class of the caste system, chief priests and officials
Kshatriya
2nd highest class of caste system, warriors
Vaisya
middle class of caste system, artisans and merchants
Sudra
lowest class of caste system, crappy jobs, poorest people
Untouchables
sub-lowest class of caste system, even touching them considered impure
Jati
"birth groups", classes within caste
reincarnation
rebirth
karma
good deeds=better reincarnation
moksha
freedom from cycle of reincarnation (Jainism and Hinduism
Mahavira
founder of Jainism
Jainism
way of life that involves nonviolence, total and extreme poverty, living in the woods
Siddhartha Gotama
founder of buddhism, grew up as a prince, saw suffering, sickness, age, and death, gave up lifestyle to wander, enlightened after sitting under tree
Four Noble Truths
1. Life is full of suffering
2. Suffering comes from desire
3. Get rid of suffering by getting rid of desires
4. Follow eight-fold path
Eight-fold Path
Right views, intentions, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, meditation
Nirvana
release from cycle of reincarnation by enlightenment (Buddhism)
Bodhisattavas
people who have achieved enlightenment but came back to help others
Mahayana
Type of Buddhism, newer and less intense
Theravada
Original, intense form of Buddhism
Hinduism
morphing of Vedic, Aryan, Dravidian religions, some buddhism, devoted to gods, rituals, okay to have some wealth
Upanishads
main religious text of Vedic religion
Brahman
universal, abstract power in Vedic religion
Atman
one's soul, reincarnated, needs to be at one with Brahman
Arthashastra
written by Kautilya, about government, enemy's enemy=friend
Chandragupta Maurya
First king of Mauryan empire, inspired by Alexander
Ashoka
Chandragupta's grandson, alarmed by death during brutal victory, converted to Buddhism, reminded people that he could be mean if he wanted to
Ramayana
Epic about Prince Rama, kills king of demons to get wife back
Mahabharata
Epic about 2 sets of cousins, bloody battle for throne, winner reluctant to take throne
Tamil Kingdoms
term for Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras kingdoms, constantly fought
Dharma
Indian word for duty
Kama
Indian word for pleasure
Artha
Indian word for wealth
Seleucus
Guy that Chandragupta made deal with to get Northern India
Chandra Gupta
founder of Gupta empire
Theater-state
State with constant, dramatic rituals, ceremonies, and cultural events
Sati
tradition where woman was expected to cremate herself on her husband's funeral pyre