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Phil Midterm 2
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Terms in this set (30)
Compound Statement
A statement composed of at least two constituent, or simple, statements
Conjunct
One of two simple statements joined by a connective to form a compound statement.
Conjunction
Two simple statements joined by a connective to form a compound statement
Disjunct
A simple statement that is a component of disjunction
Disjunction
A compound statement of the form "Either p or q." A disjunction is true even if only one disjunct is true even if only one disjunct is true, and false only if both disjuncts are false
Method of Proof
A way to confirm the validity of an argument by using simple, valid argument forms to deduce its conclusion from its premises
Propositional Logic
The branch of deductive reasoning that deals with the logical relationships among statements
Statement
An assertion that something is or is not the case
Simple Statement
A statement that does not contain any other statement as a component
Symbolic Logic
Modern deductive logic that uses symbolic language to do its work
Truth Table
A table that specifies the truth values deductive argument in which the logical structure guarantees the truth
Variables
In modern logic, the symbols, or letters, used to express a statement
Categorical Logic
A form of logic whose focus is categorical statements, which make assertions about categories, or classes, of things
Categorical Statement
A statement, or claim, that makes a simple assertion about categories, or classes, of things
Copula
One of four components of a standard-form categorical statement; a linking verb -- either "are" or "are not" -- that joins the subject term and the predicate term
Predicate Term
The second class, or group, named in a standard-form categorical statement
Quality
A characteristic of a categorical statement, based on whether the statement affirms or denies that a class is entirely or partly included in another class. A categorical statement that affirms is said to be affirmative in ________; one that denies is said to be negative in ________
Quantifier
In categorical statements, a word used to indicate the number of things with specified characteristics. The acceptable __________ are "all", "no", or "some." The __________ "all" and "no" in front of a categorical statement tell us that it's universal--it applies to every member of a class. The __________ some at the beginning of a categorical statement says that the statement is particular--it applies to some but not all members of a class.
Quantity
In categorical statements, the attribute of number, specified by the words "all," "no," or "some"
Singular Statement
In categorical logic, statements that assert something about a single person or thing, including objects, places, and times.
Square of Opposition
Standard-form statements with the same subject and predicate but different quantity or quality have truth values that are predictably correlated. This relationship is formalized and illustrated in the ______ __ __________
Standard-form Categorical Statement
In categorical logic, a categorical statement that takes one of these four forms:
1. All S are P
2. No S are P
3. Some S are P
4. Some S are not P
Subject Term
An assertion that something is or is not the case
Venn Diagram
Diagrams consisting of overlapping circles that graphically represent the relationship between subject and predicate terms in categorical statements
True
An argument is a set of statements where one (the conclusion) is supposed to be supported by the others (the premises)
T or F
False
A valid argument can have all true premises and a false conclusion
T or F
True
A valid argument can have all false premises and a false conclusion
T or F
True
A sound argument must have all true premises
T or F
True
The definition of a logical connective is its truth table
T or F
True
The phrase 'for this reason' introduces the conclusion of an argument
T or F
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