Microbiology - Honors
Terms in this set (45)
Not technically living, don't have all 8 characteristics, are parasites. Can't reproduce, evolve, no metabolism. don't grow, don't respond to environment. Have genetic material
Protein coat that surrounds viral genetic material
Only have genetic material and capsid
Second capsid made of lipids, surrounds protein capsid (viruses)
Viruses only infect thing they are designed to. Also cell specific. Can't infect other cells/hosts.
How viruses gain access to host cell
Spikes on the virus are "keys". Spikes on the cell are "locks" if they match the virus can gain access to the cell.
Virus that infects bacteria
Quick cycle, instant death to host cell by reproducing inside and then bursting out of the host cell (lysis). Attachment > Entry > Biosynthesis > Maturation > Release
Virus attaches to host cell
Virus inserts DNA into host cell
Parts of new viruses made inside the cell
Parts of new viruses assembled inside the cell
Baby viruses burst out of the host cell
Has period of dormancy where the virus is inactive, may stay this way forever. Attachment > Entry > Integration > Replication
Viral DNA becomes part of the host DNA
Host cell DNA copies and reproduces, each new DNA is a prophage
The viral DNA integrated into the normal DNA
Have no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, smaller and less complex. Only have ribosomes, genetic information, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, flagella.
Two Domains of Prokaryotes
Bacteria and Archaeabacteria
Different base sequence of RNA than bacteria, no peptidoglycan, more closely related to Eukaryotes, no known to cause disease, have histones (protein that DNA winds around in Eukaryotes)
Prokaryotic cell wall
Mostly made of peptidoglycan (disaccharides and peptides)
Prokaryotic DNA shape
Naked DNA, no proteins, single ring DNA
Small rings of DNA not part of the bacteria's chromosome. Can still transcribe/translate
Whip like tail for movement of bacteria
Aid in reproduction
Asexual reproduction. Copy everything inside and divide in half. No genetic variation
Three ways bacteria have genetic variation
Conjugation, transformation, tranduction
Transfer of DNA from donor to recipient over Pili bridge (transfers plasmids)
Takes DNA from surroundings (free pieces) Must be from closely related species. Can be taken from dead bacteria
Transfer of DNA by bacteriophage. Sometimes host DNA fragments are packaged with the virus then transferred to another bacteria.
Only has plasma membrane (thick layer of peptidoglycan). Absorbs liquid and stains purple.
Has a plasmid layer (thin peptidoglycan) and lipid layer. Lipid layer makes it harder to treat because antibiotics can't get inside. Most pathogens. Stains reddish pink. Doesn't absorb.
Groups of 4
How pathogens cause disease
Damage surrounding cells and feed off of them or release toxins which disrupts cell processes.
How antibiotics kill bacteria
Prevent protein synthesis, prevent DNA/RNA replication, block ability to make peptidoglycan. Don't work on viruses because viruses don't have any of that.
3 types of archaea
Methanogens, halophiles, thermoacidophiles
Live in swamps, marshes, intestinal tracts
Live in high salt concentrations (ocean not salty enough)
Live in extremely acidic and high temperature environments