Terms in this set (369)
If deforestation can be halted or even significantly slowed, class Amphibia is likely to exceed how many species?
What percent of class Amphibia is from the Am tropics?
How many species of salamanders are there? What order(s) are there?
390 species - orders Caudata and Urodela
How many species of frogs and toads are there? What order(s) are there?
4000 species - order Anura
How many species of caecilians are there? What order(s) are there?
163 species - orders Gymnophiona or Apoda
In the tropics, what represents the most abundant land vertebrates?
Because they often produce more mass than the other vertebrates per unit of terrestrial, amphibians often represent what?
the most important 2nd and 3rd level consumers within a community and a major protein source for their predators
They produce more mass than the other vertebrates per unit of terrestrial, but ALSO sometimes in aquatic systems - when?
when sirens are present
Name a type of bird that eats sirens.
What is amphibian biomass supported by? This in turn represents what?
arthropod biomass; this in turn represents a "conveyer belt" for energy transfer to creatures higher up in the chain (fish, snakes, birds, and mammals that would not be able to tap into the energy represented by invertebrates)
What makes the transfer of energy from arthropod to amphibian an efficient energy transfer?
low metabolic rates
What is noticeable when comparing amphibians to endotherms of comparable size?
most amphibians are slow to mature and long-lived
Amphibians that are slow to mature and long-lived, like vegetation, act as what? They act as this where?
they act as an energy reserve within ecosystems
What represents a connection for energy transfer between aquatic and terrestrial systems?
Aquatic larva represents what?
a connection for energy transfer between aquatic and terrestrial systems
Are most amphibians one-lived or two-lived?
Most amphibians are two-lived in that they have what 2 stages?
an aquatic and a terrestrial life stage
Are amphibians oviparous or viviparous?
most are oviparous but some are viviparous (receive nourishment from the parent via feeding on oviductal secretions (Alpine salamander, African live-bearing toad & many caecilians)) and others are ovoviviparous as they develop inside the oviducts or elsewhere but do not nourish the developing young (fire salamander, Golden Coqui frog)
Give 3 examples of amphibians that are viviparous.
Alpine salamander, African live-bearing toad & many caecilians
Give 2 examples of amphibians that are ovoviviparous.
fire salamander, Golden Coqui frog
What are bio-indicators?
animals that have charachteristics which make them sensitive to environmental change; therefore they're good indicators of environmental problems
What 5 charachteristics make amphibians sensitive to environmental change?
amphibious life cycle, absorptive surfaces, UV light, food habits, and susceptibility to cold and drought
amphibious life cycle?
conditions must be favorable for both their "lives"
skin permeability to gases and liquids provides an avenue for potential pathogens and contaminants from air, water, or terrestrial substrates
due to heliothermic (basking) temperature control mechanisms...especially if the ozone layers of Earth are thinning these species are susceptible to damage
animal & plant particulate matter that larva often feed upon tend to bind to chlorinated chemicals & being fat soluble they accumulate within & may persist throughout the live of the animal. In addition, following metamorphosis many feed upon invertebrates & are subject to the effects of biomagnification effects of chemical contamination within the food web
Susceptibility to cold and draught?
as moisture dependent ectotherms, amphibians are vulnerable to extremes of cold & dryness. These factors can prevent reproduction for a number of years. Consequently they are designed to be relatively long lived
The animal and plant particulate matter than amphibian larva often feed upon tend to bind to what?
After metamorphosis many feed upon what? This makes them subject to what?
invertebrates; this makes them subject to the effects of biomagnification effects of chemical contamination within the food web
What are the 4 contributions that amphibians have to human welfare?
food, teaching and research, toxicology and global intoxication studies, medicine
How do amphibians contribute to human welfare as food?
subsistence in some 3rd world countries but gourmet for the more developed countries
How do amphibians contribute to human welfare as teaching and research? (4 things)
Dissection, endocrinology, embryology & physiology
How do amphibians contribute to human welfare as toxicology and global intoxication studies?
because of their 2-lived existence as both aquatic & terrestrial organism they are the perfect organism for assaying the biotic effects of a great variety of potential toxicants. Tremendous contributions have been made to environmental and human health
How do amphibians contribute to human welfare as medicine?
especially useful in the study of fever therapy (humans can manipulate the introduction of fever inducing pathogens & control the rise in temperature via habitat manipulations). From these studies we 1st realized it is best to allow a fever to run its course unless excessively high
What is a "window" to development and ease with which amphibians can be manipulated genetically & morphologically and is a boon for experimental biologists?
Metamorphosis has aided what 3 studies?
genetics, development, and tissue transplantation
Who won a Nobel demonstrating Ach as the neurotransmitter for the Vagus nerve (in the frog)?
Otto Loewi won a Nobel demonstrating what?
Ach as the neurotransmitter for the Vagus nerve (in the frog)
Why do field biologists often choose frogs as a model for ecological studies?
because they are prone to population fragmentation and the genetic consequences
Studies of terrestrial salamanders have long made contributions to what? What are the two aspects of this?
community ecology - competition and predation
The ability for salamanders to regenerate lost limbs have led to important studies in what?
basic developmental biology
Amphibians are especially useful in the study of what field of medicine? Why?
the study of fever therapy; because humans can manipulate the introduction of fever inducing pathogens and control the rise in temperature via habitat manipulations
What did we first realize about fever therapy from the studies of amphibians in the field of medicine?
from these studies we first realized it is best to allow a fever to run its course unless excessively high
What type of distribution do amphibians have?
Why is fragmented distribution a charachteristic of amphibian zoogeography?
because of their dependence upon moist, cool environments;
they are "set up" for a first response to trouble of any type
What is metamorphosis driven by?
Metamorphosis makes amphibians vulnerable to what?
to hormone mimics that interfere with signaling
What is important to know about amphibian's tissue?
sequestered tissue contaminants
Sequestered tissue contaminants & amphibious life cycles?
metamorphosis, driven by hormones, make them vulnerable to hormone mimics that interfere with signaling
Explain the periods involved in the amphibian's breeding cycles?
there are periods of aestivation then intense energy demands for vitellogenesis
a state of animal dormancy, similar to hibernation, characterized by inactivity and a lowered metabolic rate, that is entered in response to high temperatures and arid conditions
the process of yolk formation via nutrients being deposited in the oocyte, or female germ cell involved in reproduction
Calling and breeding behaviors in amphibians force what?
fatty tissues and water reserves to be depleted at predictable stages in the life cycle
Are fish homeotherms or poikilotherms?
Are all endotherms homeotherms? Are all homeotherms endotherms?
all endotherms are homeotherms but not all homeotherms are endotherms
What led to the discovery that PE2 protected the offspring from gastric juice by switching off its secretion?
the Australian stomach brooding frogs (may be extinct)
The Australian stomach brooding frogs led to what discovery?
that PE2 protected the offspring from gastric juice by switching off its secretion
The discovery of PE2's use in Australian stomach brooding frogs may open the door for what possible treatments?
possible new treatments for gastric ulcers in humans
What causes the stratum corneum to be thin and limited as a mechanical barrier?
the respitory and osmoregulatory function of the amphibian skin
Because of the respitory and osmoregulatory function of the amphibian skin, the stratum corneum must be what?
thin & is limited as a mechanical barrier to physical & biotic impact
Since the stratum corneum has thinness and limitations, God provided what?
considerable protection via plethora of chemical secretions
What type of chemical secretions did God provide for the amphibian's skin?
many are antimicrobial properties, others protect again predators
What do the secretions on the skin represent?
a pharmacopeia for humankind
What is an example of a pharmaceutical possibility that comes from the secretions of amphibian skin?
epibetadine (from the poison arrow frog, Epipedobates tricolor) - it is 200 times as powerful as morphine
What comes from the poison arrow frog that is 200 times as powerful as morphine?
Who is experimenting with amphibian mucus to create a non-water soluble glue for use in repairing damaged soft tissue that can not be stitched?
Michael Tyler is experimenting with what? to do what?
experimenting with amphibian mucus to create a non-water soluble glue for use in repairing damaged soft tissue that can not be stitched
What is Amphiuma?
aquatic salamander, legless
What is a siren (Sirenidae)?
aquatic salamander, very small forelimbs, no hind limbs
What frog carries its tadpoles on its back?
Epipedobates tricolor (italicized)
What frog carries its babies in its mouth?
Australian gastric brooder
All male Rhinoderma darwinii (italicized) are what?
vocal sac brooders
What do male Rhinoderma darwinii (italicized) do?
they cover their embryos in a viscous (thick/sticky) bubbly fluid that may be the source of some nourishment
How many embryos do the Rhinoderma darwinii tend to have?
What is the name of the frog that covers their embryos in the viscous bubbly fluid that may be the source of some nourishment?
Frogs and toads: tails?
Frogs and toads: legs?
normally have long hind legs
Frogs and toads: toes?
webbed and unclawed
Frogs and toads: eyes?
Frogs and toads: skin?
smooth or warty
Frogs and toads: length?
range from 3/8" to 12"
Frogs and toads: habitat range?
worldwide except for the poles
What frog has a length of 3/8"?
Cuban frog, genus Eleutherodactylus
What frog has a length of 12"?
lack or have a very short tail
vary from 3"-5"
a furrowed moist skin with embedded dermal scales in some species
lidless, covered by skin, bone in some
short protrusible (capable of being protruded/extending) tentacles
In caecilians, what is the point of the tentacles that are found on the head?
olfactory and tactile
some are aquatic but most are fossorial (adapted to life underground); widely distributed in the tropics
Caecilians: ovoviparous or viviparous? Parental care?
some lay eggs that hatch into free-living aquatic larvae, some have eggs that undergo direct development, and some are viviparous
egg laying species brood their young
How many eggs does the Cuban frog, genus Eleutherodactylus, lay?
How many eggs does the bullfrog lay?
has been recorded laying 50,000
Frog reproductive sizes are a matter of what?
optimal size between egg and clutch size
glandular, may be smoothed or roughened with tubercles
lack true claws
bilaterally flattened (markedly so in aquatic forms)
vary from 1.5" to 5"
common in Northern hemisphere, only one family lives in the Southern hemisphere
What family of salamanders lives in the Southern hemisphere? How many species are within this family? What percent does this make up of the entire salamander species?
lungless Plethodontids; 250 species; makes up 60% of all species
During embryology in female salamanders, what divides into the oviduct and the opisthonephric duct? Why does it divide?
to drain the kidneys
During embryology in female salamanders, the pronephritic duct divides into what two things? Why?
the oviduct and the opisthonephric duct;
to drain the kidneys
During embryology in female salamanders, what portions of the oviduct may form ovisacs? Why would it do this?
the caudal portion;
to store eggs before oviposition
During embryology in female salamanders, the caudal portion of the oviduct may form what? Why would it do this?
to store eggs before oviposition
During embryology in female salamanders, the roof of the cloaca, when fertilization is internal, may have what? This is also called what?
also called a receptaculum seminis
What is a spermatheca (also called a receptaculum seminis)?
an organ of the female that receives and stores sperm
What percent of male salamanders use internal fertilization?
What are the packets of sperm that male salamanders leave for females called?
What is the term for what frogs do during reproduction?
Are most amphibians oviparous or viviparous?
Where do most amphibians lay their eggs?
in the water under leaves or in floating masses
Where do most anurans lay their eggs?
in strings or gelatinous masses within water
Some anuran egg masses have what? What is this for?
dorsal pouches; for incubation
Anuran egg masses that have dorsal pouches for incubation end up turning into what?
they hatch into 4-footed froglets and skip the whole tadpole metamorphosis thing
What is it called when an anuran egg mass hatches directly into froglets and skips the whole tadpole metamorphosis thing?
In the anuran egg masses that have dorsal pouches, what do the pouches incubate into?
one incubates into a vocal pouch, another is a "gastric brooder"
Do all toads lay eggs? Oviparous or viviparous?
no, some give live birth! most are oviparous but some are viviparous
What toads give live birth?
four species of African toads; some even transport their tadpoles to the water on their backs
What do spotted salamander eggs look like?
Do amphibians guard their eggs and/or nests?
although most depart the nest following egg laying & provide no care for eggs or young, there are exceptions
The variety of what across amphibians likely exceeds all other animal groups?
What is the general pattern of terrestrial or semi-aquatic adult and aquatic eggs & larva?
dominant but not exclusive
Name the salamanders that exhibit the behavioral aspect of guarding their nests. (hint - there are 4)
Hellbender, Marbled, many Plethodontids, and sirens
Name the frogs that exhibit the behavioral aspect of guarding their nests. (hint - there are 3)
many leptodactylids, the African bullfrog, the poison-dart frog (care for eggs and larva and may even transport them)
Name the 5 major ways that amphibians might guard their young.
they may apply protective skin secretions; aiding larvae to reach deeper water; coiling to prevent desiccation; feeding them with unfertilized eggs; attacking animals that approach the nest
How are foam nests constructed?
by beating mucus into a foam with fore or hindlimbs
What is the purpose of foam nests?
to protect eggs and larvae from drying and from direct sunlight
How many families of frogs construct foam nests for their young?
at least 5 families
An amplexing pair of leaf-folding frogs will do what?
create a leaf basket for eggs that is glued by oviductal secretions (later leaf breakdown will release larvae into the water below)
What practices tadpole herding?
shallow water foam nesting species, Leptodactylus bolivianus (<-- italicized)
How does tadpole herding work?
the females uses a pumping action of the hindquarters to create a current in the shallow water and secretes a chemical that stimulates the larva to follow
What is the scientific name of the leaf folding frog?
Transportation of eggs/larvae is a behavior that provides protection for larvae within what environments?
environments that would produce great danger to those species that develop aquatically
When referring to the behavior of transportation of eggs/larvae, where are eggs often transported to? How are they transported?
small hollows of water (in leaves, tree trunks); on the body, adhering via a sticky mucus that will dissolve with extended exposure to water
What frogs feed their young (hint - there are 3)? What do they feed them?
Dendrobates pumilio, Ranitomeya imitator, & D. granuliferous; they transport & feed the young unfertilized (trophic) ova
What frog gives their young biparental care?
Name an example of a toad that will transport its eggs.
Where does the Surinam toad undergo complete development? What is the term for this?
within the pockets of skin on the back of the female;
What happens during the amplexus of Surinam toads?
the pair "loops" several times to make such a deposition (for pouch brooding to be possible), both participate in the process of placing fertilized eggs
Name the 2 true marsupial frogs. What is the definition of this?
Flectonotus and Gastrotheca (<-- both italicized);
the male "places" the fertilized eggs within the dorsal pouch of the female
Explain the interactions between embryo and mother during pouch development.
embryos draw upon a large egg yolk and exchange gases, nutrients, and wastes with the mother via their gills in close contact with the highly vascular pouch tissues
The pouch tissues found on the back of females toads who participate in pouch development are highly what?
vascular (aka related to blood vessels)
Do all frogs species that use pouch development have their babies hatch into tadpoles or froglets?
most species have tadpoles hatch, but within other species (than the Surinam toad, etc.) the eggs may hatch directly into tiny froglets
What frog carries froglets in pouches on either side of the body just in front of the thighs?
the male of the Australian pouched frog
What does the male Australian pouched frog do behaviorally to protect its offspring?
it carries froglets in pouches on either side of the body just in front of the thighs
What is vocal sac brooding?
when the Darwin Frog male engulfs eggs laid upon land at the 10-20 day stage of development into the mouth and allow young to develop
What frog participates in vocal sac brooding?
the Darwin Frog male
When does the male Darwin Frog engulf eggs laid upon land into the mouth, allowing its young to develop there?
at the 10-20 day stage of development
What is stomach brooding?
the same as vocal sac brooding, but in the stomach
Name the 2 species that participate in stomach brooding. What something interesting about both of them?
Rheobatrachus silus & R. vitellinus;
they might both be extinct
What is the scientific name of the female marsupial frog?
Flectonotus fitzgeraldi (<-- italicized)
What is the Flectonotus fitzgeraldi?
the female marsupial frog
Where does Flectonotus fitzgeraldi inhabit?
Where does Flectonotus fitzgeraldi carry its eggs? Why?
in skin folds on its back; to protect the eggs from predators and keep them from drying out
The amphibian epidermis most often lacks what (2 things)?
bvs and nerves
The amphibian epidermis has a distinct what?
it has distinct layers
Name the distinct layers of the amphibian epidermis. Is molting a common problem?
Stratum corneum, spinosum, granulosum, germinativum;
molting may occur
collection of heat from sun
Define osmoregulation in Anurans.
Anurans often have a ventral pelvic patch for water & mineral uptake while dorsal skin is more protective in function
Mucus provides a moist surface for what?
The Amphibian Integument: name the 2 major ways they have protection, and what 2 things these protect the amphibian from.
Mucus (slippery & difficult to restrain) & poison (granular) glands may be present. Abrasion & injury protection
Name the CPDs of the amphibian epidermis.
granular glands, xenopus, phyllobates, Epipedobates, aposematic coloration
Granular glands are present in what amphibians?
abundant in anurans but also in caecilians and salamanders
Name the 4 amines (and what they are) that are used in chemical defense against predation.
histamine, NE, peptides, and steroidal alkaloids - vasoconstrictors, hemolytics, hallucinogens, neurotoxins
What is Xenopus?
magainins; an antimicrobial that kills G+ and G- bacteria, fungi, parasites, and enveloped parasites (even tumor cells)
What are Phyllobates?
What are Epipedobates?
epibatidine - 200 times more powerful than morphine as a pain killer
What is aposematic coloration?
red, orange, yellow coloration as a warning
Magainins are an antimicrobial that kills what?
G+ and G- bacteria, fungi, parasites, and enveloped parasites (even tumor cells)
Epibatidine (found in Epipedobates) is used as what?
a pain killer
Epibatidine (found in Epipedobates) is how much more powerful than morphine?
Name 4 frogs with aposematic coloration.
Epipedo, Dendro, Phylo, and Xenopus
In reference to coloration changes: MSH from anterior pituitary guides what?
melanophore, iridophore, and xanthophore activity (may be dermis too)
In reference to coloration changes: What guides melanophore, iridophore, and xanthophore activity (may be dermis too)? Where is this located?
MSH from anterior pituitary
What does the "hairy frog" grow during breeding season?
When does the "hairy frog" grow vascular filaments?
What 2 amphibians have vascularized skin folds?
hellbender, L T frog
Vascularized skin folds and vascularized filaments are forms of what?
accessory respitory structures
Brood pouches are in what?
What is used for digging in some fossorial forms?
What are metatarsal tubercles?
used for diggings in some fossorial forms
During breeding salamanders what is present in some male salamanders?
Where are "pheromonal" glands present?
in some male salamanders during breeding season
What is sometimes webbed for swimming and parachuting from limb to limb?
What allows the offset of the digit with toe pads?
What allows tree frogs to climb?
toe pads and intercalary bones, in conjunction with mucus
Are caecilians ovoviviparous?
Where do many ovoviviparous amphibians carry their eggs?
in oviducts, stomach, skin, etc.
Do the ovoviviparous amphibians receive nourishment from their parents? What is the exception?
the embryos receive no nourishment (exception may be the Darwin frog) from the parent
Where has intrauterine cannibalism been observed/reported?
in Salamandra salamandra (<-- italicized)
When do amphibians hatch/in what stage of development?
they, depending on the species, hatch in various stage of development
a state of extreme dryness
What is amphibian dermal water loss compared to lizard water loss of comparable size?
amphibians may have 50x the water loss of lizards
Name the 4 reasons amphibians are at a high risk for desiccation.
buccopharayngeal, lung respiratory, defecation, urination
For body water regulation, name the 4 major desiccation avoidance behaviors.
(1) closing eyes, tucking limbs, and clustering
For body water regulation, name the 3 major desiccation avoidance structures.
(1) cocoons of epidermis or hardened mucus
(2) layers of mucopolysaccharides that bind & hold water that can later be released that also makes the skin impervious
(3) pelvic or seat patches in anurans & wrinkled skin in salamanders & some toads that draw water via capillary action
What makes amphibian skin impervious?
layers of mucopolysaccharides that bind and hold water that can later be released
What is in anurans that helps draw water via capillary action?
pelvic or seat patches
What is in salamanders and some toads that helps draw water via capillary action?
For body water regulation, name the 8 major desiccation avoidance physiological thingies.
(1)high tolerance to water loss (greatest among verts)
(2) lowering metabolic rates
(3) bladder reserves
(4) use of stored fat to generate water
(5) Na concentration and urea production & retention to increase osmolarity
(6) use of vasotocin as antidiuretic
(7) arboreal species may secrete a water repellent
(8) uricotelic N excretion as in the leaf frog that is stored in mucus envelopes within the bladder
Amphibians can use their stored fat to generate what?
NA concentration and urea production and retention is used to increase what?
Vasotocin is used as what?
Arboreal species may secrete a what?
Uricotelic N excretion as in the leaf frog that is stored in mucus envelopes within what?
Uricotelic N excretion is stored where in the leaf frog?
in mucus envelopes
What does the leaf frog excrete?
What do amphibians use as a reservoir for water that is accumulated when in water and is used up when on land?
extensive subcu lymph sac and channel system
Water may be stored where in amphibians?
when in fresh water osmosis will occur through the skin; opposite for salt water (most can not tolerate)
How do amphibians hydroregulate?
by moving back and forth between land and water
Is a small animal expected to lose/gain water faster or slower than a larger animal? The answer is because what is important?
because surface to mass ratio is important
the second level of skin
In reference to methods of gas exchange, the cutaneous depends on what?
The skin is a major site for what?
The skin is a major site for gas exchange in what 3 types of species?
terrestrial, aquatic, and semiaquatic species
Where does the Titicaca frog live? What is special about how it breathes?
deep under water;
is does not need to surface to breathe due to the tremendous surface area of the skin
The mucosa of the buccopharyngeal region may be highly what?
What is in the buccopharyngeal region that may be highly vascularized?
When is the buccopharyngeal method of gas exchange very important?
when metabolic rates are low as in winter
Name the 4 methods of gas exchange.
cutaneous, buccopharyngeal, branchial, pulmonary
The branchial method of gas exchange is used in what amphibians?
The branchial method of gas exchange is via what? In what?
via external gills, in atrial chambers of anurans
In reference the gas exchange methods, that form should we utilize?
The pulmonary method of gas exchange is for the use of what?
The pulmonary method of gas exchange is especially important to what existence?
Why is the pulmonary method of gas exchange especially important to terrestrial existence?
to prevent evaporation of the necessary moisture
Lung linings may be what?
smooth, pocketed, or (as in the anurans) made up of alveoli (as in humans)
The lung lining of alveoli (as in humans) are surrounded by what?
dense capillary networks
In pulmonary gas exchange, some forms maintain what 2 things?
lungs and gills
The retention of embryonic or larval charachteristics is referred to as what?
What is neoteny?
the retentions of embryonic or larval charachteristics
What is another name of the hairy frog?
Lake Titicaca frog
What is the scientific name for the hairy frog/Lake Titicaca frog?
What penetrates into the epidermal layer of the skin of the Trichobatrachus robustus?
The capillaries of the Trichobatrachus robustus penetrate what?
the epidermal layer of the skin
Those frogs who don't have capillaries that penetrate into the epidermal layer of the skin use what?
folds of the skin
Chemical defense falls within what 4 things?
biogenic amines, peptides, bufodienolides, and alkaloids
Name 3 biogenic amines that are used in protection against predation..
NE, dopamine, and seratonin
Name a peptide that is used in protection against predation.
What two chemical defenses are often taken from the inverts that are in their diets (frequently ants)?
bufodienolides and alkaloids
Bufodienolides and alkaloids are often taken from where?
the inverts that are in their diets (frequently ants)
What are protective glands in reference to amphibians?
more than 200 toxins have been identified from only a small percentage of the worlds amphibians
What are the 2 major reasons that aposematic coloration is used?
some use it for camouflage but others use warning coloration; still others use a combination of the two (the latter by posturing)
What is aposematic coloration exactly?
red, orange, yellow coloration as a warning
What is crypsis?
when coloration or morphology (or both), and particularly when coupled with immobility, is beneficial for avoiding detection by visually oriented predators
What is an important part of crypsis?
What is disruptive coloration?
an important part of crypsis in order to break up the outline
What makes it difficult for predators to create reliable search images?
What is polymorphism?
part of crypsis that makes it difficult for predators to create reliable search images
Darwin's frog's leaf appearance allows morphology to what?
"blend" it into the environment
What is chemical crypsis?
"cover" scents, have been suspected but have been difficult to prove
a method of protection against predation; when possible many seek to flee
Amphibian tail lashing is usually associated with what?
Who is more adept at flight when protecting themselves against predators: anurans or salamanders?
when the lizard/amphibian detaches its tail; it means a few seconds to escape; one species of lizard will go back and consume the tail if the predator missed the meal
Name 12 methods of protection against predation.
chemical defense, aposematic coloration, crypsis, flight, tail displays/autonomy, playing possum, bloating, biting/kicking, vocalization, mimicry, schooling, and postural warning
Playing possum/immobility allows small creatures to blend in ___ if they remain motionless.
Feigning death (playing possum/immobility) is used across what animals?
several herp groups
Protection against predation: bloating?
the snake can't swallow them and will eventually tire of trying or so they can not be pulled from a crevice
What is an example of an amphibian that uses vocalization as a protection against predation? This is noted to have what?
barking tree frog; noted to have backed off a snake
when a nontoxic species mimics a toxic form
Give an example of Batesian mimicry.
N. viridescens is unpalatable to birds; birds avoid Pseudotriton ruber and Plethodon cinereus (<-- all italicized) because they "look alike"
when several toxic forms resemble each other
Protection against predation: schooling?
swarming to appear to be a larger predator
What 4 species participate in schooling as an act of protection against predation?
Bufonidae, Ranidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae
How does Physalaemus nattereri exhibit postural warning?
it raises its body to expose 2 large eye spots (that produce noxious chemicals)
What is the "unken" reflex?
a type of postural warning; when the amphibian arches the back and elevates the head and limbs to expose the "color"
How does Bombina variegata exhibit postural warning?
rolls their feet over to expose the brilliant color on the bottoms
What is flash behavior?
a type of postural warning; flashing a wide mouth or bright coloration; exhibited by the Bombina variegata
Wallace's flying frog (aka the parachute frog)
Home range is normally related to what?
1 or more resources
Home range is often associated with what?
Home range may increase or decrease as what changes?
food availability and densities change
Are home ranges for arboreal species volumes or areas? Difficult or easy to determine?
volumes rather than areas - difficult to determine
The shape of the home range is often related to what?
to the microhabitat specificity and the physical structure of the microhabitat
the portion of the home range that is defended against intruders (males most often)
How is territory exhibited in amphibians?
well documented in all amphibian groups but the caecilians
movement "in mass" from breeding pools
Who participates in mass movements?
ambystomids and some anurans
Name the 5 aspects that help animals with figuring out where to go during mass movements.
landmarks, polarized light, chemical cues, magnetic orientation, and interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments
Reproduction: breeding patterns are the same as what other patterns?
Fertilization: frogs? salamanders?
external in frogs, internal in salamanders
when males position themselves near calling males and intercept approaching females
retention by an organism of juvenile or even larval traits into alter life
Explain metamorphosis in salamanders vs anurans.
patterns of development often vary
How are tadpoles an adaptation? What do they feed on?
they exploit the environments with seasonal rainfall and temporary bodies of water; they feed on bacteria, algae, protozoans, and organic matter that accumulates in these waters
Tadpoles: Since rapid transformation is necessary, what is "sacrificed'? Why?
certain systems are "sacrificed" at this stage that they might exist as "feeding machines"
Tadpoles: are there any breeding neotenic forms known?
Who said the quote, "no tadpole has abandoned his frog"? When?
Tadpoles: how are they helpful in a larger ecological scheme?
it is a connection between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems by which nutrients may be transferred
Tadpoles: what is there role in the food chain?
they are often a major lower consumer within aquatic food chains...feeding both invert and vert predators
Salamanders larval transformation to terrestrial existence: what happens to the tail fins?
reduction or loss
Salamanders larval transformation to terrestrial existence: gills?
Salamanders larval transformation to terrestrial existence: gill slits?
Salamanders larval transformation to terrestrial existence: skin?
Salamanders larval transformation to terrestrial existence: eyelids?
Salamanders larval transformation to terrestrial existence: dentition?
changes may be made, an often elaborate tongue forms
What is a worry that comes with the salamanders larval transformation to terrestrial existence?
most are more vulnerable to predation at this time
During metamorphosis, what amphibian must undergo a major dietary shift with associated anatomical and physiological changes?
anurans, not salamanders (unnecessary)
Tadpole to frog metamorphosis: limbs?
limb growth accelerates, hind limbs enlarge, forelimbs (if ensconced) break through the operculum enclosing the gills
During tadpole to frog metamorphosis, what must the forelimbs do if ensconced?
break through the operculum enclosing the gills
Tadpole to frog metamorphosis: jaws/teeth/tongue?
jaws, teeth, and tongue form
Tadpole to frog metamorphosis: eyelids?
Tadpole to frog metamorphosis: lungs?
more fully develop
Tadpole to frog metamorphosis: tail?
Tadpole to frog metamorphosis: strat epi?
Tadpole to frog metamorphosis: asso glands?
Tadpole to frog metamorphosis: gut?
develops to the adult form with a true stomach
Tadpole to frog metamorphosis: vert column and limb bones?
Tadpole to frog metamorphosis: intestine?
the long coiled herbivorous intestine shortens to a carnivorous form
Tadpole to frog metamorphosis: hormones?
thyroid hormones play a major role in this process
What is one worry associated with the metamorphosis of a tadpole into a frog? Who doesn't have to worry about this/why?
it is a time of increased predation (even cannibalism) except in a few species which develop poison glands to ward this off (Rana sylvatica)
Where does neotony most often occur?
in permanent or semi-permanent bodies of water
Neoteny is a prolongation of what stage?
the larval stage
Neoteny may accompany what?
it may accompany breeding or it may not
What is the most important environmental factor associated with neotony? Therefore what are correlated?
therefore high latitudes and elevations are correlated
What does low temperature do to neoteny?
it slows growth and the release of thyroxin or the bodies ability to respond to it
Other than low temperature, what other environmental factors may also contribute to neotony?
food shortage, aridity, lack of cover on land, little I, competition, and genetics
Larval breeding provides what flexibility? What is a very positive aspect to it?
provides the flexibility of adjusting to environmental conditions; it may even shorten the hazardous growing period on land
What organism has seemed to exploit larval breeding?
Tiger salamanders may metamorphosis when? Even after what?
when conditions are right to disperse...even after breeding as neotenates (offspring may metamorphosis before the parents)
Paedomorphosis: when is it labeled neotony?
when sexual maturation occurs
What is Paedomorphosis?
phenotypic and/or genotypic change in which the adults of a species retain traits previously seen only in juveniles
What type of consumer is salamander larva?
Explain what a salamander larva would look like when in quiet water. Tail fins? Dorsal fin? Gill Filaments? Gill Rakers? Hindlimbs?
broad tail fins, dorsal fin reaching the shoulder, a balancer, long gill filaments, well formed gill rakers, non-functional hindlimbs at hatching
Explain what a salamander larva would look like when in moving water. Tail fins? Dorsal fin? Gill Filaments? Gill Rakers? Hindlimbs?
opposite of salamander larva in quiet water
Explain what a salamander larva would look like when terrestrial types. Teeth?
(undergo development within the egg to adult form...gills absorbed at hatching)
some have an egg tooth but most emulsify the egg capsule with enzymes
How do salamanders that hatch as terrestrial types get out of their egg?
some have an egg tooth but most emulsify the egg capsule with enzymes
Salamander Paedomorphosis: which is more numerous, obligate larval breeding forms or facultative forms?
obligate (genetically fixed) larval breeding forms are numerous but facultative forms (tiger salamander) are too
Paedomorphosis: obligate larval breeding forms?
Paedomorphosis: facultative forms?
Are caecilians oviparous or viviparous?
may be oviparous but most are viviparous
Caecilians that are oviparous do what with their offspring?
may undergo direct development but others give rise to free-living aquatic larvae that hatch on land but make their way to water
Within a year after hatching caecilians do what?
have burrowed into the soil to construct their burrows
Caecilians that are viviparous do what with their offspring?
undergo full development within the oviduct of the mother
When caecilians that are viviparous are developing in the mother: gills? eyes? dentition?
they have gills at this stage; eyes that will later regress; scraping dentition to stimulate nutrient secretion from Mom
What do baby viviparous caecilians often consume what, in spite of what?
oviduct tissue from mom, in spite of the yoke sac
How many young might a viviparous caecilian have? How big will they be?
there may be 9 that are each 40% of the mothers body length
Viviparous caecilian metamorphosis: teeth? skin? gills? developments of what? dentition?
resorption of fetal teeth; thickening of skin; loss of gills; development of tentacles; development of adult dentition shortly before birth
Where do amphibians lack ribs?
on the atlas
Explain the ribs of an amphibian?
they lack ribs on the atlas; they are either reduced or absent elsewhere; when they're present they are usually short and fused to transverse processes
When the ribs of an amphibian are present they are usually what?
short and fused to transverse processes
Do the pectoral girdles in amphibians or humans have more bones?
What are the bones in the pectoral girdle of the amphibian?
cleithrium, coracoid, epicoracoid, suprascapula, scapula, and clavicle
In salamanders, the girdle is mostly what? Overlapping?
cartilage; with half overlapping the other and moves independently
In most anurans, the girdle is where? It is designed to do what?
suspended from both the skull and the vertical column; designed to absorb shock
What are the two types of anuran girdles?
Arciferous vs Firmisternal types
Compared to humans, how are the bones of the salamander similar?
salamanders have bones with the same names in both the pectoral and pelvic girdles
Compared to humans, how are the bones of the anurans similar?
not similar - they have a single radio-ulna bone and a single tibiofibula
What is Scaphiopus (<-- italicized)?
Scaphiopus has what sort of bone? for supporting what?
has a prehallux bone to support a sharp-edged tubercle for digging (others too)
How many types of vertebra are present in most salamanders?
4 or 5 types of vertebra
What does the anuran vertebral column consist of?
the cervical (atlas), trunk (4-7), sacral (1 single vert), and postsacral-urostyle regions
Is a true sternum present or not present?
What sort of support does the single sacral vert offer? This thereby necessitates what?
it does brace but does not allow for strong support of the hind limbs; this thereby necessitates its belly-dragging sprawl-legged stance (wriggling often aids locomotion)
What amplifies the sound of the bull frog when he is calling?
the tympanic membrane
What does the tympanic membrane of the bull frog do?
amplifies sound when he is calling
How much of the frog species around the world are threatened with extinction?
Who/where did the study with estrogen in the water turning male frog tadpoles into females? The study appeared in what journal?
Uppsala University in Sweden; Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry in May; one author = Cecilia Berg
Rana pipiens were observed in what study?
the male frogs of this species has a sex-reversal in the US in the wild to a pesticide that produced estrogen-like compounds
Rana temporaria is what?
a European common frog; examined in a study of how males become sex-altered after exposed to estrogen
Berg says that the only immediate remedy to male sex-altering amphibians is what?
to improve sewage treatment in areas where frogs and other amphibians might be affected to filter out estrogen concentrations coming form contraceptive pills and industrial pollutants
What are the 2 orders of caecilians?
Gymnophiona and Apoda
During tadpole metamorphosis, name everything that forms?
jaws, teeth, tongue, strat epi, asso glands, vert column, limb bones