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AP BIO CHAPTER 13 (ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION)

Terms in this set (219)

1) Nose, pharynx, larynx:
2) Trachea: when swallowing, epiglottis (special flap) covers trachea (preventing entrance of solid/liquid
3) Bronchi/Bronchioles: trachea branches into two bronchi, which enter lungs + branch, forming bronchioles (narrow tubes)
4) Alveolus: small sac at end of each bronchiole; surrounded by blood-carrying capillaries
5) Diffusion Between Alveolar Chambers and Blood: diffusion across moist sac membranes; oxygen diffuses into moisture covering membrane, through alveolar wall, through blood capillary wall, into blood, into red blood cells; carbon dioxide---opposite direction
6) Bulk Flow of O2: circulatory system transports O2 throughout body with redblood cells (hemoglobin)
7) Diffusion Between Blood/Cells: blood capillaries permeate body; oxygen diffuses out of red blood cells, across blood capillary walls, into interstitial fluids, across cell membranes
8) Bulk flow of CO2: dissolved bicarbonate ions in plasma (liquid portion of blood);
9) Bulk Flow of Air Into/Out of Lungs: lung volume increases, airpressure within lungs decrease; pressure difference --> air rushes into lungs by bulk flow; decrease in lung volume raises pressure on air, causing air to rush out
10) Control of Respiration: chemoreceptors in carotid arteries monitor pH of blood + in brain, monitor pH of fluids surrounding brain/spinal cord; when body is active, CO2 production increases. When CO2 enters plasma, CSF is converted to HCO3- + H+ (pH drops);
chemoreceptors send nerve impulses to diaphragm and intercostal muscles to increase respiratory rate (fast turnover ing as exchnage --> returns blooD CO2 to normal)