APUSH chapter 38 Vocab
The AP vocab for chapter 38
Terms in this set (42)
Republican President, 34th, United States veteran who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany. 1953-1961
President 1969-974, Withdrew Troops from Vietnam, Resigned due to Water Gate.
John Foster Dulles; "brinkmanship"
(1888-1956) served as the Secretary of State under Eisenhower; significant figure in the early cold war era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world (push USSR tensions).
(1913-2005) an African American civil rights activist who started the Montgomery Bus Boycott when she refused to give up her seat.
Montgomery bus boycott
a political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 which intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
(1929-1968) an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African American civil rights movement, best known for being an iconic figure in the advancement of civil rights in the US and around the world, using nonviolent methods.
Ho Chi Minh
(1890-1969) a Vietnamese Marxist revolutionary leader who was prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), which he formed.
Suez Canal Crisis (1956)
aka Tripartite Aggression, was fought by Britain, France, and Israel against Egypt. The attack was after the President of Egypt, Gamel Nasser, tried to nationalize the Suez Canal.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries (OPEC)
an intergovernmental organization of twelve developing countries, with a principal goal of determining the best means for safeguarding the organization's interests, individually and collectively.
(1894-1971) led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War (after Stalin died).
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights movement of the 1960s.
the first Ear-orbiting artificial satellite launched by the Soviet Union in 1957.
a Cuban political leader and former communist revolutionary. A primary leader of the Cuban Revolution, Castro served as the Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, then as the President of the Council of State of Cuba and the President of Council of Ministers of Cuba until his resignation from office in 2008.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Decision saying, segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment, 1954. Supreme Court ruling that overturned the old Plessy V. Ferguson principle that black public facilities could be "separate but equal"
Chief Justice of Supreme Court in charge of Warren Commission, also ruled in Brown V. Board of Education
- Writer whose 1963 book signaled the beginnings of more extensive feminist protest
John F. Kennedy
Youthful politician who combined television appeal with traditional big-city Democratic politics to squeak out a victory in 1960
Gamal Abdel Nasser
President of Egypt from 1956-1970, was known for his pan-Arab nationalism and opposition to colonialism, specifically in his decision to nationalize the Suez Canal in 1956. Although his reputation was somewhat tarnished by his country's military failure against Israel in the 6 Days War of 1967, he reamined a popular leader in Egypt and throughout the Arab world
Memphis-born singer whose youth, voice, and sex appeal helped popularize rock 'n' roll in the mid-1950s. Commonly known using only his first name, he was an icon of popular culture, in both music and film
Army McCarthy Hearings (1954)-
Congressional hearings called by Senator McCarthy to accuse members of the army of communist ties. In this widely televised spectacle, McCarthy finally went too far for public approval. The hearings exposed the Senator's extremeism and led to his eventual disgrace
Checkers Speech (1952)
nationally televised address by vice-presidential candidate Richard Nixon. Using the new mass medium of telvision shortly before the 1952 election, the vice presidental candidate saved his place on the ticked by defending himself against accusations of corruption
Battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954)
military engagement in French colonial Vietnam in which French forces were defeated by Viet Minh nationalists loyal to Ho Chi Minh. With this loss, the French ended their colonial involvement in Indochina, paving the way for American's entry
Federal Highway Act of 1956
federal legislation signed by Eisenhower to construct thousands of miles of modern highways in the name of national defense. Offically called the National Interstate and Defense of Highways Act, this bill dramatically increased the move to the suburbs, as white middle-class people could more easily commute to urban jobs
The Feminie Mystique (1963)
best-selling book by feminist thinker Betty Friedan, this work challenged women to move beyond the drudgery of suburban housewifery and helped launch what would soon become second-wave feminism
Hungarian uprising (1956)
series of demonstrations in Hungray against the Soviet Union in which Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev violently suppressed this pro-Western uprising, highlighting the limitations of American's power in Eastern Europe
- system of racial segregation in the American South from the end of Reconstruction until mid-twentieth century. Based on the concept of "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites, it sought to prevent racial mixing in public, including restaraunts, movie theatres, and public transportation. An informal system, it was generally perpetuated by custom, violence, and intimidation
Kitchen Debate (1959)
telvised exchanged in 1959 between Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and American Vice President Richard Nixon; meeting at the American National Exhibition in Moscow, the two leaders sparred over the relative merits of capitalist consumer culture versus Soviet state planning. Nixon won appluause for his stanch defense of American capitalism, helping lead him to the Republican nomination for president in 1960
a brand of vitriolic, fear-mongering anti-communism associated with the career of Senator Joseph McCarthy. In the early 1950s, he used his position in Congress to baselessly accuse high-ranking government officals and other Americans of conspiracy with communism. The term named after him refers to the dangerous forces of unfairness and fear wrought by anticommunist paranoia
An art movement that artists applied paint freely to their huge canvases in an effort to show feelings and emotions rather than realistic subject matter. It was the first important school of American painting to develop independently of European styles
emerged from conflict between the dying world of tradition and the modern commercial world struggling to come to life in the aftermath of the Great War
group of artists in NYC and San Fran who rejected mainstream culture and instead celebrated personal freedom
pop artists in the 1960's, notably this man, depicted everyday items of consumer culture such as soup cans
the author of the searching probe of American values found in the 1949 play Death of a Salesman
an African-American author who wrote Invisible Man arguing that a black man can't be seen as a real man
architect, was born in Kirkkonummi (Kyrkslätt), Finland, Saarinen was attempting a functionalist, economical architecture liberated from pictorial considerations. This evolution was partly inspired by a belief in technology.
(1912-1956) was the leading figure in abstract
expressionism, a style that evolved after World War II and radicalized the history of American painting and modern art in general
beat poet; published a long poem named "Howl" that blasted US culture
Jack Kerouac, On the Road
- He produced what may have been known the bible of the Beat Generation. His novel was an account of a cross-country automobile trip that depicted the rootless, iconoclastic lifestyle of Kerouac and his friends.
Operation Wetback (1954)
a government program to roudup and deport as many as one million illegal Mexican migrant workers in the United States. The program was promoted in part by the Mexican government and reflected burgeoning concerns about non-European immigration fo America
policy of boldness (1954)
foreign policy objective of Eisenhower's Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, who believed in changing the containment strategy to one that more directly engaged the Soviet Union and attempted to roll back communist influence around the world; this policy led to a build-up of American's nuclear arsenal to threaten "massive retaliation" against communist enemies, lauching the Cold War's arm race
rock 'n' roll
"crossover" musical style that rose to dominance in the 1950s, merging rhythm and blues with white bluegrass and coutry; featuring a heavy beat and driving rhythm, rock 'n' roll music became a defining feature of 1950s youth culture
Begin to emphasize glass and lights as modern building techniques allowed more openness