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AP CHEM BIG IDEA #1 ATOMS
Review for big idea #1 of AP Chemistry Princeton review
Terms in this set (46)
Number of protons in nucleus. atoms are arranged this way in the periodic table.
Horizontal Rows of the periodic table.
Columns of the periodic table.
Group 1: Alkali Metals
Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 3-12: Transition Metals
Group 17: Halogens
Group 18: Noble Gases
Lanthanide and Actinide or rare earth metals
Protons + Neutrons = mass number
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of Neutrons
Average of the mass numbers weighted by percent abundance
technique used to determine mass of isotopes.
1 mole = 6.02 10^23 molecules
Ideal gas equation.
p= pressure, v= volume, T= temperature in K and R= gas constant
standard temperature and pressure
Percent composition is calculated by mass of each element or component in a compound by the total molar mass of the substance.
The empirical formula represents the simplest ration of one element to another in a compound.
Electron energy is quantized: electrons can only exist at specific energy levels, and are separated by specific intervals
When building up the electron configuration of an atom, electrons are placed into orbitals, subshells and shells in order of increasing energy. AKA: Fill lowest energy level first.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Within an Atom, no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers. Each electron in any atom has its own distinct set of four quantum numbers.
When an electron is added to a sub shell, it will always occupy an empty orbital if one is available.
The greater the charge of the nucleus, the more energy an electron will have. Also, the closer the electron is to the nucleus, the more energy it will have
Energy changes do not occur smoothly but rather in small but specific steps
The Bohr Model
when an electron absorbs energy, it jumps to a higher energy level. when it emits energy, the electron returns to a lower level. see diagram: http://letubeu.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/bohrs-model-2.gif
Energy and Electromagnetic Radiation
delta E = hv = hC/lamda
h= plancks constant = 6.63e-34 Joule*sec
v=frequency of the radiation
lamda= wavelength of the radiation
c= speed of light, 3.00e8 meters/sec
Amount of energy necessary for removal of an electron from the atom.
Kinetic Energy of electron
energy of motion.
incoming energy (Photon)= Ionization energy + Kinetic energy of the electron
Photo electron Spectra. used to determine where electrons are (Energy level) and how many there are?
describe the shape of the place where the electron can be found.
types of subshells
S: Can hold 2 electrons
P: Can hold 6 electrons
D: Can hold 10 electrons
F: Can hold 14 electrons
S: group 1 And 2 plus helium
P: groups on the right of the table
D: transition metals
F: lanthnide and actinide series
presented basic ideas about atoms.
1. All matter is made of atoms.
2. all atoms of an element are identical in mass and properties
3.Compounds are formed by 2+ kinds of atoms
4. matter cannot be destroyed in a chemical reaction
work with cathodes. developed plum pudding model of the atom
determined the charge of an electron
alpha particles at gold foil. credited for discovery of the nucleus
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
impossible to know the position and momentum of an electron at a particular instant.
Overview of periodic trends
1. the closer an electron is to the nucleus, the more strongly it is attracted.
2. the more protons in a nucleus, the stronger the electron attraction
3. electrons are repelled by other electrons in an atom. ( Shielding?)
4. Completed shells are very stable.
distance from nucleus to valence electrons
Moving left to right across a period
atomic radius decreases
Moving down a group
Atomic radius increases
Cations are smaller than anions
absence of an electron (Hence positive charge) decreases atomic Radii
Anions are larger than neutral atoms
energy required to remove an electron
Moving left to right across a period, ionization energy increases
more protons, so valence electrons are pulled in
moving down a group Ionization energy decreases
Shells of electrons are added to the nucleus, and shielding lowers the ionization energy.
Second Ionization energy is greater than the first
Now it has an extra proton to pull that electron in.
moving from left to right across a period.
Moving down a group.
how strongly the nucleus of an atom attracts the electrons of other atoms in a bond.
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