Chemistry 2nd Semester Exam Review
Terms in this set (96)
The process in which heat is evolved by a system
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree celsius is
what is the device used to measure heat flow
what is the relation, which states that heat flow in a reaction is the sum of two other reactions and is equal to the sum of the heat flows in those two reactions?
The normal boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals ________
body centered cubic
face centered cubic
the 3 common types of lattices
what type of equilibrium occurs when two opposing processes occur at the same speed
which equation is Henry's law
what is defined as the amount of energy liberated when water molecules surround an ion or other solute particle
weak attractive forces caused by instantaneous dipole-induced dipole attractions
what type of property depends only on the number of particles in a solution, and not their chemical identity?
According to Raoult's law, adding a solute ___ the vapor pressure.
An ________ has the main purpose of stabilizing colloids by preventing their particles from sticking together
what is the value for the heat of reaction of an ideal solution
what term describes conversion of a solid to a vapor
What type of substance blocks the action of a catalyst
what is the time required in a chemical reaction for the concentration of a given reactant to be reduced to half its initial value
what is an extremely reactive chemical species that contains one or more unpaired electrons
when a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the system counteracts the disturbance to return to equilibrium
state LeChatelier's principle
if K is a small number then the forward reaction will not go
the reaction quotient is determined the same way as the equilibrium constant. the only difference is that the constant can be determined at any point during the reaction
if you increase the concentration of a reactant in a chemical reaction, the reaction will proceed in the reverse direction
the only change in a reaction, which will change the equilibrium constant, is the change in concentration
an endothermic reaction will occur when an increase in temperature occurs
a proton donor is a Bronsted Lowry
A species that can either accept or donate a proton
defined as the measure of the hydrogen ion concentration
_________ acids are completely ionized in water
Indicator which is clear in acidic solution and pink in basic solution.
if Ka>Kb, then the salt is __________
The weaker the acid, the smaller the value of _________ and the larger the value of pKa
An ionic solid containing any cation other than H+ and any anion other than OH- or O2-
substances, which change colors in the presence of acids or bases
measure of hydroxide ion concentration
the concentration unit defined to be the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
the measure of how much the ions dissociate in a solution
a water solution with a pH = 7
any solution that resists a change in pH
a buffer system has a very large _________, and so go virtually to completion
diluting a buffer with water does not change the __________
red to yellow
color change for the indicator methyl red
yellow to blue
color change for the indicator bromothymol blue
colorless to pink
color change for the indicator phenolphthalein
pH of a solution
Ka of the indicator
the color of an indicator depends on
the solid that forms when two solutions are mixed
an expression which has the same form as Ksp, but involves arbitrary rather that equilibrium concentrations of ions
which solid precipitates first? the more soluble or the less soluble?
-adding a strong acid to a weak base or adding a complex ion
what are the two ways to dissolve a precipitate
group 1 on the periodic table
profitable substance extracted from a metal
seperation of metals from its particles
process used to obtain Na metal
Charles Hall and Paul Herout
which two men are responsible for discovering the process of obtaining Al from Bauxite?
glassy substance formed from the reduction of hematite ore
impure substance that can be used to make steel
silver and gold
two metals found in nature in their elemental form
what is gold ore treated with to separate it from the other components of the ore
how are Ca, Sr, and Ba stored?
what are compact, portable sources of hydrogen gas for inflating life rafts and balloons?
bases are formed when an alkali metal reacts with ___________?
deep purple; treats athletes foot and rattle snake bites
mixture of two or more metals
which nonmetal is a liquid at room temperature
nitrogen; strong triple bond
what is the least reactive nonmetal? why?
Fluorine weak F-F bonds
What is the most reactive of all elements? why?
action of hypochlorous acid on bacteria
what is the odor and taste of chlorinated water due to?
their oxidizing power
why are halogens hazardous to work with?
what was used as poison gas in WWI
Louisiana experimentalist; civil war 1865
who discovered elemental sulfur? when?
two or more different forms of the same element
what compound has a rotten egg odor?
what is known as "laughing gas"
time required to convert half of the original amount of reactant to product
the splitting of a heavy nucleus by a neutron into two lighter nuclei accompanied by the release of energy
rate of radioactive decay; number of atoms debating per unit of time
reaction between small atomic nuclei to form a larger one, releasing energy in the process
ability possessed by some natural and synthetic isotopes to undergo nuclear transformation to other isotopes
what dose of radiation (in Rems) is fatal to humans
nuclear reactors release radioactive products into the environment in a process called ______________ which leads to an explosion
three mile island
2 examples of nuclear accidents
Irene Curie and Frederick Joliot
who made the first radioactive isotope in the laboratory
an application of neutron activation analysis
Ra and Po
what two radioactive elements did Marie and Pierre Curie discover?
t 1/2= .693/k
what equation is used to find the half life of a substance in first order
what factor will decrease the value of K?
what factor will increase the value of K?
carbon ; coke
the most common reducing agent in metallurgical processes is __________ in the form of __________?
coverslip; crystallization slide
in aspirin tree lab, do not use _________ on a ____________
the natural process of forming complex substances in living things
was once used as a love potion
poinsettias, mistletoe, elephant ears, and ivy
name a few poisonous plants you are most likely to find indoors
medicinal use of plants
_______________ has become one of urgency because many of these plants are fast becoming extinct as civilization spreads into present jungle and forrest areas
a substance in which the basic structure of salicylic acid is combined with a sugar
the use of engineering and other specific techniques in studying and manipulating life processes
substance from which the others are formed in a process that may involve several steps
crystallization by extraction
the technique used to isolate salicylic acid from willow bark
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