WOS225 Final Review
Terms in this set (79)
the belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as men
dislike of, contempt for, or ingrained prejudice against women
A form of social organization in which males dominate females
society and culture create gender roles, and these roles are prescribed as ideal or appropriate behavior for a person of that specific sex
the attribution of a fixed essence to women. Women's essence is assumed to be universal and is generally identified with those characteristics viewed as being specifically feminine
the classification of people into one of two categories, male or female
the biological differences that distinguish males from females
the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines man and woman
a gender identity or performance that does not fit with cultural norms related to one's assigned sex at birth
an individual who undergoes sex reassignment surgery and hormone treatments
Umbrella term for all trans people
leadership or dominance, especially by social group over others
the state of being cast off
1st Wave Feminism - Start & End Date
Seneca Falls(1848) - 19th Amendment(1920)
1st Wave Feminism - Significance
focused on legal issues, primarily on gaining the right to vote
2nd Wave Feminism - Start & End Date
1960s - 1980s
2nd Wave Feminism - Significance
increase equality for women by gaining more than just enfranchisement
2nd Wave Feminism - Things
Rosie the riveter & Feminine Mystique(the problem that has no name)
3rd Wave Feminism - Time Period
1990s - present
3rd Wave Feminism - Significance
global issues, intersectionality, non-binary identities, critique of capitalism
Problems With Wave System
what was done in one wave was done in another, but it is a good teaching tool
Right To Vote And "White Feminism"
-Feminism that only acknowledges white experiences, right to vote- only white women, breaking the glass ceiling - white, middle - upper class women to rise in corporate America, exploit African American and immigrant and under pay them as maids, nannies, and house keepers
-Made no effort to help African American women
When white women worked for the right to vote, they told African American women that they were going to help get slavery abolished if they helped them get the right to vote, but white women never did
When women got the right to vote, prohibition was passed.
Women working because the men were at war(Rosie the riveter)
Birth Control Pill
-Margaret Sanger did not invent the birth control pill, she just helped to get it approved.
-Condoms were the first form of birth control ever and have been used for thousands of years.
-Pill was tested on women in Puerto Rico
No gender based discrimination by anything that get federal funding
Roe vs Wade
ended in Hyde amendment
-Right to abortions is protected by the 14th amendment
-No federal funding for abortion except for pregnancies from rape, incest or threat of life to the mother
In 1960 white women made 60 cents to every mans dollar, women of color make 42 cents
The Bridge Called My Back
the bridge between white feminists and everyone else
-Black American lawyer and women's rights activist
This man was an African American jurist, and a strict critic of affirmative action. He was nominated by George H. W. Bush(Not Reagan) to be on the Supreme Court in 1991, and shortly after was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill. Hearings were reopened, and he became the second African American to hold a seat in the Supreme Court.
why was jogger case so significant?
Central Park jogger case, what happened at the same time? Central park jogger was killed and a millionaire put up money for the capture of the perpetrators, at the same time a homeless African American women(?) was raped, killed and thrown down an elevator shaft
Why are cases of sexual harassment against women of color often thrown out?
black women are hyper sexualized and seen as wanting it
coined not created intersectionality
an analytic framework for assessing how factors such as race, gender, and class interact to shape individual life chances and societal patterns of stratification
Key factors in any intersectional approach
race and gender
not doing it ad hoc
not race and then gender, they connect
Difference between suffering and oppression
Oppression is systematic and suffering they have the power to end it
Bird cage example
microscopic view vs macroscopic view
Double bind and virgin/***** dichotomy
damned if you do, damned if you don't
Door holding example
Insignificant, not misogynistic as itself a single act but it's a bar in the cage, in combination with everything else
Beauty and intersectionality
Media is beneficial to white women. The beauty standard is white and still hurts women who are not white women.
What did this essay say about the relationship between race and body image issues?
Women of color are not seen as having body image issues because the questions were being asked by white men and the men were asking more white, culturally centered questions.
What about class and age?
Poverty is a scar on the body
What is the Oedipal Complex?
The son fights for moms love because he's in love with his mom.
fear that boys will have their penis cut off
Freud says women have because they see boys and wonder where their penis is because having a penis is seen as having power
What is the problem for feminists with the way Freud proposes his theories?
The problem was that he looks at women as not sexual at all; doesn't consider their sexuality. When he does males are seen as superior and women or girls are added as an afterthought. Women cannot discover pleasure through exploration, they have to experience it through penetration. Women are passive and need a cleaver seducer and they don't pee from their vagina or clitoris.
How might his writing style have helped create this problem?
Freud would also talk about women or girls as an afterthought, like they did not matter as much as men. Used mainly masculine pronouns. passive voice
How did Freud's theories work their way into popular culture?
Television and media
rich, aristocrat, inherited their wealth from England
tradesman, works for his money, war veteran
rich entrepreneur, pulled themselves up by the boot straps
What Is the difference between the self-made man and the American Adam?
the American adam heavily relied on religion and god gave them all the land to do with as they please whereas religion was less of a factor to self made men, they were greedy capitalists
created the bridge and coming out to her family and how when she came out she finally understood how her mom struggled.
Tokenism, Asian women being seen as docile and subordinate
letter to Mary Daily addressing how Daily incorrectly used her research for her book on goddesses. Lorde felt like she had to speak out about the book and publicly publish her letter to Daily because she felt like if she didn't, she would be seen as a hypocrite. EFFECTIVE APOLOGY
What does the metaphor This Bridge Called My Back mean?
They are physically willing to be the ridge between white feminists and everyone else by sharing their stories and their lives and being the stepping stones.
Why did Moraga give the example of being mad at her sister?
She felt as though her sister was betraying her and their family by marrying a white guy because she was buying into social norms.
What organization did Sanger help to start that still exists today?
Birth control federation of America-planned parenthood
Why is she considered an important part of feminist history and the rights many women have today?
First push for women's access to contraceptives
Why was she arrested at the end of the reading?
Violating laws on who could give guidance
What was Davis's critique of Sanger?
What did Davis say about the US relationship with Eugenics?
Specifically targets minority groups to sterilize
What might explain the popularity of eugenics in the US?
Eugenics is the control of overproduction of unwanted populations and US has a history of racism
How did Sanger move from protecting women from unnecessary abortions to imposing reproductive restrictions on certain women?
Persuaded government to put in family planning places and wanted them to specifically target groups to tie tubes or sterilize. Fed up with her efforts not working, went to conferences and began getting funding for Eugenics. Always had bigoted speech
Why is choice always such an important issue to feminists?
What is compulsory heterosexuality?
All women are lesbians
What is the lesbian continuum?
All women exist on a scale of lesbianism( all women have loved or have been loved by another woman)
Why does Rich want straight women to identify as lesbians
All women at some point loved another woman or were loved by another women
Whose theories was Rich turning on his/her head to make her point?
Rich was making a point that people who identify as something other than heterosexual can explain why they are interested in the gender they are interested in but heterosexual people cannot
How does heterosexuality use the gender binary to impose it hegemonically on everyone?
Hegemony imposes this through normativity; heterosexuality and the gender binary are normalized, if you do not fit in that "norm" than you are ostracized.
How does this negatively impact heterosexual relationships?
People don't build relationship in genuine ways
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