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Lecture Exam Final
Terms in this set (39)
How do Beta-lactam antibiotics function to inhibit bacterial growth. How do bacteria typically inhibit Penicillins?
How can filtration be used to sterilize a solution? Describe 1 limitation of using filtration for separating cells from a solution
Excluding Beta-lactam drugs, name 2 targets/modes of action of antibiotics AND described two ways in which bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. (You can either explain or label or draw and label a diagram of a bacterial cell)
Briefly distinguish generalized and specialized transduction and how these processes lead to the exchange of genetic information between cells
Provide 4 characteristics of the ideal anit-microbial drug
You are working in the infectious disease division of a large university hospital. Unfortunately, patients in your hospital are acquiring an infection caused by a new strain of P. Vulgaris that is resistant to a combination of antibiotics not previously observed in this species. Let two possible mechanisms by which this strain of P. Vulgaris might have acquired these multiple antibiotic resistance. Be sure to explain why you think your mechanism is correct.
The Griffith experiment was one of the earliest experiments (blah blah). Explain the process of transformation in bacteria and describe the experiment that Griffith et, al. conducted using mice and two strains of Staph aureus
You are working with some strains of Enterobacter aerogenes and monitoring the expression of the lac operon. Very briefly explain what will happen with each of the following E. aerogenes strains in terms of expression of the lab operon.
(A) Strain 1 has no mutations in the lac 1 gene or anywhere else associated with the lac operon grown with lactose only.
(B) Use strain 1 again, what happens to lac operon when grown in glucose and lactose
(C) Strain 2 has a mutation in the operator sequence that prevents lacl from binding-grown with lactose only
(D) Strain 3 has a mutation in the lacl gene that acts as though allolactose is always bound-grown with lactose only.
List the metabolically inactive states formed by some pathogenic bacteria to respond to environmental stresses such as antibiotic treatments or nutrient limitation, et al.
What are the specific functions of the agar slant, agar deep and culture broth.
How many staining technique did we discuss in the lecture and what are they? Please list the subtype of stains where appropriate
Provide a reason as to why community acquired microbial infections tend to be more responsive to antibiotic treatments than hospital acquired infections
Where do most UTI causing bacteria come from and why are women do much more likely to develop them than men?
Briefly describe 2 of the severe Group A strep infections
Briefly distinguish graft vs host and host vs graft disease
What is the organism that causes floppy baby syndrome and how is it typically contracted by the children?
List (3 but meant 1) organisms that have been known to cause forms of meningitis
Explain 3 different defenses including how they function, that limit microbial colonization of the lower respiratory tract
Explain how lyme disease is acquired, the symptoms and treatment of the disease and what can happen if left untreated
Described the clinical stages of syphillis
What organism causes strep pharyngitis and what are the 2 conditions that can develop if the infection goes untreated? At which condition would antibiotic treatment cease to be in preventing damage from the infection and what happens in this post-infectious condition?
T/F Restriction enzymes typically recognize palindromic sequences to cleave RNA
T/F Plasmids must replicate at the same time and rate as the host chromosome during replication
T/F Mutations are always harmful to a cell
T/F: Microbicidal agents are always sterilants.
T/F Two methods of transforming competent cells in the lab are heat shock transformation and electroporation
T/F An operon is a cluster of genes that are co-regulated and controlled by a single promoter
T/F The antiparallel base-pairing in the DNA double helix means that an adenine nucleotide in one strand of DNA will always pair with another adenine nucleotide in another strand
T/F Moist heat requires more time than dry heat to sterilize equipment or contaminated heat
T/F Pasteurization that occurs when a liquid is exposed to 71.6C for 15 seconds is flash pasteurization
T/F Once a recipient strain has received an F plasmid it is referred to as F+ and can receive another F plasmid from a different donor
T/F Buffers are used to maintain a neutral pH
T/F Binary fission is the sexual process by which two bacteria come together and exchange chromosomes in reproduction
T/F In prokaryotes the ATP is formed on the cell membrane while in eukaryotes the reactions occur primarily in mitochondria
T/F The energy yield in aerobic respiration is far less than that which results from fermentation
T/F Gram positive bacteria are those that retain the crystal violet when a decolorizing agent is added, appearing blue/purple at the conclusion of the procedure
Suppose you gram stained a sample from a pure culture of bacteria and observed a field of red and purple cocci. Adjacent cells were not always the same color. What do you conclude?
A student of general biology observed a microbiology student using immersion oil and asks why the oil is used "to increase magnification of the microscope" is the reply. Do you agree or disagree? Why?
A bacteria that uses glucose as an energy source has been isolated to from an anaerobic environment. After the growth of the bacterium, the pH of the growth medium is measured and found to be very acidic, when analyzed, the medium is found to have a high concentration of lactic acid. The bacterium is most likely metabolizing by a process known as
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Microbiology Exam 1
Microbiology Exam 2 Chapters 7-10
Microbiology Exam 2
Micro Exam 3
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