Spread protestantism, seize Spanish treasure
Encouraged by Queen Elizabeth, semi-piratical English buccaneers had these two goals.
This man was the most famous of Queen Elizabeth's buccaneers. He intercepted a Spanish gold-carrying vessel, then sailed around the world to avoid the Spanish fleet. When he returned to England, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth on his deck of his ship.
It was too cold of a climate, and its founder, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, perished at sea during the early stages of the colonization effort
Why did England's colony at Newfoundland fail?
After several false starts, the colony eventually disappeared without a trace.
What became of England's colony at Roanoke?
The English employed swifter, more maneuverable, and more ably manned crafts
In what ways were the Englishmen better than the Spanish Armada?
A great storm known as the "Protestant Wind"
What crippled the Spanish Armada, leading to England's victory?
The signing of a peace treaty in 1604
How did peace finally come about between Spain and England after their conflict in the English Channel?
A strong, unified national state under a popular monarch; religious unity; and a vibrant sense of nationalism and national destiny
What characteristics did England display on the eve of its colonizing adventure?
England's population growth, economic depression, primogeniture laws, and puritans seeking religious freedoms
What events in England supplied colonial immigrants? (Name 4)
Thirst for adventure, for markets, and for religious freedom
Name 3 motives of the English to colonize.
It provided them the same rights as Englishmen living in England
In what way was the Jamestown charter important to New World colonists?
Disease, starvation, and malnutrition
What perils did the "self-styled gentlemen" that colonized Jamestown face after they disembarked?
Captain John Smith had previously been taken captive by the Indians in a mock execution. Who was the leader of those Indians?
They wanted to show their strength, but also their will for peaceful relations
For what reasons did the Indians fake an execution of Captain John Smith?
What role did Pocahontas play in Colonist-Indian relations after Captain John Smith's mock execution?
Lord De La Warr
The colonists of Jamestown were heading back to England when they encountered another vessel under the control of this man.
He became their new governor, forced them back to Jamestown, imposed a harsh military regime, then undertook military action against the natives
What action did Lord De La Warr take after encountering the Jamestown colonists?
First Anglo-Powhatan War
What was the name of the first war between English colonists and Native Americans?
Marriage between Pocahontas and John Rolfe
What brought about peace after the First Anglo-Powhatan War?
Banished Indians from White settlements
What were the terms of the peace treaty ending the Second Anglo-Powhatan War?
Disease, Disorganization, and Disposability
What were the "Three D's" that the Powhatans fell victim to?
Based on the desire for English goods, Native American tribes competed with one another over trading rights with the English, and the land required to obtain the goods that they would trade
In what ways did the English warrant Indian-Indian violence?
Tobacco's success led to the introduction of the plantation system in Virginia, and therefore, the need for fresh labor
What connection, if any, exists between tobacco, the plantation system, and fresh labor?
A Dutch warship sold twenty Africans to Virginia colonists
How were the seeds of North American Slave Trade planted in 1619?
He revoked the Virginia Company of London's charter to make Virginia a royal colony
Because James I was hostile towards Virginia, what action did he take?
He gave large chunks of land to his Catholic relatives, leaving smaller estates for Protestants
How did Lord Baltimore distribute his colony's land?
Act of Toleration
What did the Maryland Catholics promote in their effort towards having their religious practices tolerated?
Religious tolerance among Protestants and Catholics; the death penalty for those that denied the divinity of Jesus
What did the Act of Toleration decree?
Sugar required much more work and money to harvest than tobacco
How were tobacco and sugar different?
They imported African slaves
How did the West Indies colonists deal with the greater amount of work required to harvest sugar?
English colonists imported so many African slaves that the Africans outnumbered the English
Why, in the present day, are the West Indies predominantly black?
It denied fundamental rights to slaves and allowed slave masters to inflict vicious punishments for slight infractions
What did the Barbados Slave Code decree?
migrated to North America's southern colonies (especially Carolina)
Since sugar was so expensive to harvest, many smaller English farmers...
The farmers brought knowledge of the Barbados Slave Code to the Carolinas and lived by its decree
Why is the migration of farmers from the West Indies to the Carolinas important to African slaves?
similar to the Barbados Slave Code
Because many of the migrant farmers of the Carolinas originated from the West Indies, they adopted a slave policy...
Export of foodstuffs to provision sugar plantations in the West Indies, and the export of non-English products such as wine, silk, and olive oil
What made up the economy of the Carolinas?
Colonists abducted Indians from inland and either forced them to work in Carolina as slaves or sold them to other colonies
Based on the experiences of many Carolina immigrants from the West Indies, describe the slave-trade system of Carolina.
Colonists purchased Africans familiar with rice and resistant to English diseases
How did rice being the principle crop of Carolina affect Carolina slave trade?
They were resistant to authority and the control of the Church of England
For what reasons did colonists immigrate from Virginia to found North Carolina?
North Carolina engaged in several battles with the Native Americans
What relations did North Carolina have with the Indians?
No; Unhealthy climate, demoralizing Spanish attacks, Early restrictions on black slavery
Was a plantation economy successful in Georgia? Give three reasons why or why not.
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
What colonies make up the "Plantation Colonies"?
Religious tolerance among Catholics and Protestants was fairly high, however the Act of Toleration in Maryland persecuted those who denied the divinity of Jesus
What was the state of religious toleration throughout the majority of the southern nations?
Tobacco "butchers" it, making the soil useless after several years of replanting
How does tobacco affect the soil it grows in?
They continue to push inward in search of land to grow tobacco on
How does tobacco's "soil butchery" warrant reaction from the colonists?