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Anth 101 FInal pt. 3
Terms in this set (50)
What situation is associated with a reduced level of gender stratification?
What is a political system ruled by men in which women have inferior status?
Marked differences in male and female biology, besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals, and temperament
individuals born with any of several variations in sex characteristics
What term refers to a gender role that is neither male nor female?
What form of sexual orientation refers to a person's lack of sexual attraction to either sex?
A religious figure that mediates between ordinary people and supernatural forces, often in non-state societies
What is a shaman?
A prohibition backed by supernatural or cultural sanctions
What is a taboo?
What are social movements that occur in times of crisis, in which religious leaders seek to alter a society in disorder, error, or sin?
A concept of good fortune related to a sacred impersonal force in Melanesia
What is mana?
what are the phases of the rites of passage?
What is the term for the racial group that has long been marginalized in Japanese society?
What is the type of ethnic conflict that leads to the deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder?
-Muslims in Bosnia
-Tutsis in Rwanda
-Jews in Nazi Germany
what are examples of genocide
What concept refers to beliefs that defend the privileges that dominant racial groups exercise over subordinated racial groups, which work to reinforce an existing racial hierarchy?
Used in the United States, what racial identity rule automatically places the children of interracial couples in the minority racial group?
What cultural categories could become meaningful to the construction of ethnic identity?
-There are no "biological races" within Homo sapiens
-There are visible phenotypic differences (skin color, hair texture, eye color, etc.) between people
-Race is a cultural category that uses some phenotypic differences (like skin color) but not others (like ear size) to create arbitrary divisions between populations
Homo sapiens has 99.99% genetic commonality at the level of the species. Humans have a very long history of migration and this has resulted in the intermixing of populations around the world. As such, no population has remained entirely isolated from other populations for very long. Because of this, anthropologists (and geneticists) have argued what?
These cults take European cargo (i.e. goods from ships) as sacred objects that hold the secret to wealth and resurrection, creating elaborate rituals that mimic the ways Europeans use certain objects
world systems theory
certain countries exercise military power to capture territories, populations, resources, and markets
capitalists world economy
A single world system of economically and politically interdependent nations linked to together through foreign trade
-The geographic center/dominant position in the world system
-Monopolizes the most profitable activities
-Economic, military, and technological powers
-Intermediate regions between the core and the periphery
-In contemporary times, the semiperiphery is industrialized and exports industrial commodities, but also strong reliance on natural resources and cheap labor
-The least privileged and powerful countries
-Produces raw materials, agricultural goods, and human labor for export to the core and semiperiphery
Transformed the capitalist world economy and power base in Europe
Americas, Africa, and Asia
when industrialists needed new recourses, where did they turn to?
-owners of capital investments (i.e. factories, mines, large farms, banks) and corporations
-Later became the upper class
-small business owners, shop owners, merchants, and small-scale farmers who own their lands
-Largely came from peasantry
-Entirely lacking in capital (or access to formal credit), their only commodity was their own labor power
rarely, if ever, fully employed
Industrial reserve army
The people who are permanently unemployed or unemployable
-The Spanish and Portuguese took the lead in colonizing the New World and Africa
-Colonial peripheries were created in places like Peru, Brazil, and Mexico
-Slave trade flourished
what did early colonialism look like with the Spanish and Portuguese?
-European industrial society and the world capitalist system developed in tandem
-New imperial forces (Britain, France, and the Netherlands) developed colonial peripheries as sites for raw material extraction
-Competition between European powers precipitated imperialism
what did Late colonialism with the British, French, and Dutch?
Members share certain beliefs, values, and customs because of their common background, and define themselves as culturally distinct
religion, language, region, race, or shared historical experience
what are the possible cultural bases of ethnic identity?
typically done through skin color
Racial categorization in the US
Racial categorization in Brazil
-4 categories of applicants: white and black, criminal record or none
-Applicants given comparable resumes, sent to same businesses in Milwaukee, and trained to behave similarly during the interviews
Pager's study of discrimination in job applicants
Ethnic groups that have, once had, or wish to have autonomous political status and territorial sovereignty
What is the process by which a minority ethnic group is incorporated into a dominant culture to the point that the ethnic group no longer exists as a separate cultural unit?
model that expects minorities to abandon their cultural traditions for majority values
-The Sunni/Shiite conflict in Iraq
-Basque liberation front (ETA)
-The Zapatistas in Chiapas, Mexico (EZLN)
what are some examples of ethnic conflict?
a series of processes that promote change through systemic interconnectedness reflecting the ongoing growth of the world system
-Age of exploration, conquest, and early colonialism
-Consolidation of the world system through trade
-European imperial dominance
what happened in the first wave of globalization?
-First wave of revolutions, constitutional monarchy and representative democracy, and World War I and II
-Deepening of the world system through industrial production, market capitalism, and late colonialism
-European imperial dominance
what happened in the second wave of globalization?
-Cold War divisions of First/Second/Third Worlds, expansion of representative democracy, decolonization
-Acceleration of the world system through financialization, hydrocarbons as energy source, and mass consumerism
-Fall of Soviet Union and surge of market democraticization
-American dominance but declining global power
what happened in the third wave of globalization?
The idea that globalization is creating growing uniformity between countries with the U.S. as the key culture force promoting this change
Forces of homogenization are heterogenized or localized when they enter different countries/locales
organizations that own or control production of goods or services in 2 or more countries other than their home countries
Seeking to avoid paying pensions, health benefits, etc., companies have outsourced their jobs to private contractors who can then hire the same workers for lower wages and fewer benefits
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