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Terms in this set (130)
The largest lymphatic organ is the:
In a child, the red bone marrow can be found:
in most bones
Describe the functions of the blood.
- transport (O2, CO2, hormones, wastes, etc.)
- defense (WBCs, platelets)
- regulation (transfer heat, osmotic pressure--diffusion of H2O into the blood)
What is the temperature of blood in Fahrenheit and Celsius?
38 degrees Celsius, 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit
What causes blood to have a higher viscosity than water?
Give the range of pH for blood:
7.35 to 7.45
Adult males have a circulating blood volume of __________, while women have a circulating blood volume of __________..
5-6 liters, 4-5 liters
Why do males have a higher circulating blood volume?
Plasma represents _____ of whole blood.
__________ of plasma is water.
__________ plasma proteins such as albumin, globulins, fibrinogen.
__________ electrolytes, organic nutrients, organic wastes
plasma protein that maintain blood volume and pH
plasma protein that transport, fight infection
plasma protein, blood clotting
The red blood cells make up the remaining __________ of whole blood.
The formed elements are:
RBCs, WBCs, platelets
The formed elements are created through a process called __________, AKA __________.
Before birth, hemopoiesis begins in the yolk sac, and then in the liver, thymus, and lymph nodes, and then eventually occurs in the __________ starting about 3 months prior to birth and continues through the end of life.
red bone marrow
Hemopoiesis begins with a Multipotent (pluripotent) cell that give rise to two stem cell lines:
B & T lymphocytes, NK cells
RBCs, platelets, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes
4-6 million/mm3 of whole blood
red blood cells
structure of red blood cells
biconcave disc-like shape
RBCs have plasma membranes but not the usual organelles and no __________.
Would you say RBCs are true cells?
No. True cells contain nucleus, cytoplasm, and P.M.
WBCs aka __________
white blood cells
can leave bloodstream and enter injured/infected tissues, found in lymph and ECF, all are phago
The entrance and exit of air into and out of lungs
pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
Composed of simple squamous epithelium and surrounded by pulmonary capillaries:
passage of air to each alveolus
Gas exchange between air and blood:
passageway for air and food
passageway for air only
Increases surface area for moistening and warming air
Mucosal folds that vibrate when air is expelled past them
Flap of elastic cartilage that prevents food from passing thru glottis
Lies anterior to esophagus; connects larynx to bronchi (primary)
Gas exchange between blood and tissue fluid (cells)
Space between vocal cords; opening to larynx
Contain coarse hairs, cilia and mucus that trap dust and pollen
Lymphatic tissue located within the nasopharynx
Receive O2 from alveoli and deliver CO2 from tissue cells to alveoli
Trapped mucus, dust, dirt moved into pharynx from trachea
mucociliary escalator ?
Contains alveoli and carries out gas exchange
Passageway of air into bronchi
Passageway of air into lungs
Film of lipoprotein that lowers surface tension
Contains enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II
Serous membrane that clings to surface of lungs
Serous membrane that lines inside of thoracic cavity
Holds the two pleura together and prevents alveoli from collapsing
Tissue that forms the wall of alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
simple squamous epithelium
Defend against any debris or pathogens inhaled
Lack of surfactant in infants
infant respiratory distress syndrome
Potential space between pleural membranes containing serous fluid
Smooth sustained breathing
absence of breathing
normal quiet breathing
500 ml of air
The primary airway in the body:
In order to exhale, atmospheric pressure must be __________ than alveolar pressure
What happens to volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs when the respiratory muscles relax and lung tissue recoil?
What happens to pressure in the thoracic cavity and lungs when the respiratory muscles relax and lung tissue recoil?
What even results due to the relaxation of these muscles and recoil of lung tissue?
faster than normal breathing
Breathing depends on changes in volume and pressure; if there is an increase in volume, then pressure must decrease and vice versa. Before you take a breath in, atmospheric pressure is __________ to thoracic cavity and lung pressures.
pressure between the pleurae
In order to breathe in, this pressure within the lungs and thoracic cavity must be _____________ than atmospheric pressure.
Skeletal muscles involved in inhalation and their actions
The cells in the lungs that carry out phagocytosis
Is inhalation active or passive?
Inspiration is the active phase of ventilation because this is the phase in which the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles contract.
What happens to the volume in the thoracic cavity and in lungs during inhalation
What happens to the pressure in the thoracic cavity and in lungs during inhalation
In order to breathe out, pressure in the lungs and thoracic cavity must be ____________________ than atmospheric pressure.
Is exhalation active or passive?
Usually, expiration is the passive phase of ventilation, and no muscular effort is required to bring it about.
Skeletal muscles and their actions involved in exhalation:
What happens to volume in thoracic cavity and in lungs during exhalation?
What happens to pressure in thoracic cavity and in lungs during exhalation?
What keeps alveoli from collapsing during exhalation?
The presence of surfactant lowers the surface tension within the alveoli
Maximum inspiratory effort involves the accessory muscles of respiration:
muscles of the back, pectoralis minor (chest), sternocleidomastoid muscles of the anterior back, etic.
When is forced exhalation required?
Forced expiration accompanies the maximum inspiratory efforts of heavy exercise. It is also necessary to sing, blow air into a trumpet, or blow out birthday candles.
Instrument that records volume of air exchanged during breathing
500 ml inhaled and exhaled each breath
Max amount of air in and out body
Amount of air forcibly inhaled beyond tidal inhalation
inspiratory reserve volume
Amount of air remaining in lungs after expiratory reserve volume
Percentage of tidal volume reaching alveoli
Percentage of tidal volume remaining in air passageways
Residual volume + vital capacity =
total lung capacity
Breaths per minute (bpm) in healthy adults
12 to 20 ventilations per minute
Ventilation controlled by: __________, located in medulla oblongata
primary respiratory center
__________ nerve from respiratory center stimulates the _________ and __________ muscles to _________.
What happens to pressure in lungs and thoracic cavity during ventilation
What happens to volume in lungs and thoracic cavity during ventilation:
What occurs to result in exhalation?
Helps medulla regulate a smooth transition between inhalation and exhalation
Prevents overstretching lung tissue
↑ CO2 and H+ causes:
due to increased cellular respiration (during exercise, for example), the respiratory center increases respiratory rate and depth.
↓O2 is detected by:
When oxygen concentration decreases, these bodies communicate with the respiratory center, and the rate and depth of breathing increase.
Gas Exchange and Transport: atmospheric pressure is a force that combines the weight of all the gases in the air we breathe. Each one of the gases in the atmosphere exerts its pressure within the air. Each gas then, has a __________ and each gas will diffuse from an area of __________ to an area of __________.
partial pressure, high partial pressure, low partial pressure
External respiration occurs between what two structures?
During external respiration, where is the partial pressure of O2 greatest?
Into which structure will O2 diffuse? (external respiration)
During external respiration, where is the partial pressure of CO2 greatest?
Into which structure will CO2 diffuse? (external respiration)
External respiration converts _________ blood to _________ blood.
Internal respiration occurs between what two structures?
During internal respiration, where is the partial pressure of O2 greatest?
Into which structure will O2 diffuse? (internal respiration)
During internal respiration, where is the partial pressure of CO2 greatest?
Into which structure will CO2 diffuse? (internal respiration)
Internal respiration converts _______________blood to _________________ blood.
The __________ of a gas determines whether the gas will stay where it has been moved to (example: out of the alveoli and into blood). It indicates whether the material will remain dissolved in a liquid.
Gases are not very soluble except __________ (example: CO2 forced into liquid to form a Coke).
Only ________% O2 and _________ % CO2 travel dissolved in blood.
98% O2 is transported bound to _________ in RBCs.
_____% CO2 is transported as carbaminohemoglobin.
______% CO2 is transported as bicarbonate ion.
When the right atrium contracts, __________blood is forced through the _______________ valve into the _____________ ventricle; when the left atrium contracts, _____________ blood is forced through the _____________________ valve into the _______________ ventricle.
carry oxygenated blood away from heart
carry deoxygenated blood toward heart
control minute to minute blood into capillary bed
vessels closest to heart
drain deoxygenated blood from capillary bed
vessels farthest from heart
contact tissue cells and supply their cellular needs
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