Philosophy Final Exam
Terms in this set (40)
The Ontological Argument for God
Premise 1 - When you conceive of something, it exists in your mind
P2 - We conceive of God, so God exists in our mind
P3 - Existence in reality is superior to existence in our minds
P4 - In order to be the true greatest, the thing must exist in reality
P5 - God is the greatest being that can be conceived
Conclusion - So, God must exist in reality
the Cosmological Argument for God
P1 - The universe exists
P2 - The universe is contingent (could exist or could not exist)
P3 - All contingencies are caused
P4 - If there were an infinite regress of causes with no necessary first cause, the universe would not exist
C - There must be a First Cause that is not contingent, but is necessary = God
The Teleological Argument for God
Telos - Design or purpose
P1 - The universe is like a found watch
P2 - The watch is complex
P3 - The universe is complex
P4 - The watch was designed by a designer
P5 - The universe was designed by a designer
C - The designer can only be God
Omnipotent - All powerful
Omniscient - All knowing
Omnibenevolent - All caring
The Problem of Evil
P1 - Let's assume Omni-God exists
P2 - If God were omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent, then the world would not contain evil
P3 - But, the world does contain evil
C - Thus, Omni-God oes not exist
Ivan & Alyosha
Would you create a world where innocents HAD to suffer for some future perfection?
Is God a Utititarian?
Ivan's Conclusion - God's a dick
a vindication of divine justice in the face of the existence of evil
OmniGod is personal, transcendent (outside the universe), and immanent (active in the universe)
powerful God is personal, transcendent, but not immanent; First Cause, that's all
Pantheistic (pan = all; theo = God):all and only God exists (you, this computer, bacteria, laws of physics, etc.); God is not transcendent or immanent-God IS the universe and all its contents
McFague and her conception of God
Sallie McFague endorses a pantheistic God because she cares about the environment, and if we see God in everything, we will take better care of things
The "religious hypothesis" is a "forced, live and momentous" option
P1 - Agnosticism about God looks like a position taken out of fear
P2 - Belief in God without clear evidence can be a position of hope and reward
P3 - We want hope, not fear
C - Individuals should believe; the risk may be worth the reward
Believed that a "all loving" and "all caring" God should have done better than what's going on in the world now
Believes that beliefs should be based on evidence
A philosophy which suggests that nothing can ever be known for certain.
Reason (taking place in the mind),plays the dominant role in our attempt to gain knowledge
Experience is the only source of knowledge
Plato's Myth of the Cave literal meaning
Three men are chained in the back of a cave that lets no sunlight in. There is a fire behind the men that allows objects that pass between the men and the fire to cast shadows. The men, never seeing the real object, identify the shadows as being "The real form". However, when one prisoner is released, he sees the object and the amazing world outside of the cave, and realizes that the shadows were only lesser forms of the true objects. When he tells the other men, they become angry and kill him when they are released.
Plato's Myth of the Cave symbolic meaning
The prisoners represent people who are trapped not only physically, but mentally
The shadows represent the reasons that the prisoners are trapped in their own head; what average people take to be their own reality.
The people who deliberately carry the objects represent the people in control
The sunlight represents free thinking, and the thought that things will eventually get better
It takes a while to adjust to the light because if your mind has been closed for a while, it takes some time to start thinking for yourself
It's hard to return because you don't want to go back to that way of thinking
"Cogito ergo sum,"
"I think, therefore I am"
he achieved this by clearing his head of all preconceived ideas and beliefs, and started collating each and every element together one by one
There is only one kind of "stuff" in the universe; what we see as distinct objects are just varieties of this fundamental "stuff"
Physicalism OR Idealism
(The belief that) the real world is nothing more than the physical world
direct and immediate knowledge can only be had of ideas or mental pictures.
There are two fundamental kinds of "stuff" in the universe
Physical/Material AND Ideal/Mental/Spiritual
Groucho and Harpo Example
Two identical twins are involved in a car accident. One twin, Groucho, has his body destroyed. The other twin, Harpo, has his brain destroyed. The doctors are able to salvage Groucho's brain and they successfully put it in Harpo's body. When the patient wakes up from the operation, who is he?
Continuity of your SOUL or SPIRIT
Continuity of your BODY
Continuity of your BRAIN
Memory & Consciousness Theory
Continuity of your THOUGHTS
Continuity of your Narrative/the story of your thoughts and actions
Individuals DO NOT persist; we are an ever changing STREAM of thought/actions; there is no stable and true self
the genuine ability to make choices and be responsible for those choices
Determinism as Scientific assumption
Every physical event has a physical cause
P1 Humans are physical creatures only.
P2 Every physical event has a physical cause.
P3 The course of any physical event is determined by previous events.
P4 Human "decisions" are physical events (in our brain chemistry) determined by previous events.
P5 Human "decisions" are determine
D'Holbach's view, "Hard Determinism
Humans are physical creatures, subject to universal causal laws
No free will. It is an illusion.
Churchland & "Self Control"
Modify understanding of "free will" to focus on the brain and mechanisms of "self control"
Sartre's "Radical Freedom" and "existence preceded essence"
Some events don't follow causal laws. Human decisions do not follow laws. Yes we have complete free will.
Belief that one race is superior to another to justify treating people poorly
Kovel's View on Racism
3 Levels of Racism
1.Dominative- physical abuse, threats
3.Metaracism- systemic, hangover of racism; different "starting points" for members of different race
M, F, intersex
Desires and life plans
Roles in society
Women and Men tend to have different roles.
Women's roles have tended to be subordinate to men's roles.
Men's roles oppress men, too.
Feminism defined by Seely
Seely defines "feminism" as the basic idea that women are equal to men
Seely describes "patriarchy" as a form of social organization which values men over women
Seely says that all feminists are committed to social justice
Seely indicates that the feminist movement is responsible for making it so that women can vote, drive, own property, go to college, etc.
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