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Cognitive Process - Chapter 8
Terms in this set (47)
A type of memory containing generalized knowledge of the world
Meaning of words and sentences
Grammatical category, open class, nouns, verbs, adj,adverbs
A division or grouping used to classify something.
A set of objects that belong together
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
situated cognition approach
we make use of information in the immediate environment or situation. as a result, our knowledge often depends on the content that surrounds us.
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
an approach to semantic memory in which a person decides whether an item belongs to a category by comparing that item with a prototype
the degree to which a particular member of a category matches the prototype for that category
a graded structure
Begins with the most representative or prototypical members and continues on through the category's non-prototypical members.
People reach decisions faster when an item is a typical member of a category, rather than an unusual one
semantic priming effect
People respond faster to an item if it was preceded by an item with similar meaning
The core features that category members share; a given member of the category may have some but not necessarily all of these features.
Higher level, more general categories
moderately specific categories
Lower level or more specific categorie
1. typically used to identify objects
2. more likely to produce semantic priming
How convincing it is
problems with prototype approach
1. notions about the ideal prototype may shift as time passes or context changes
2. we often store specific info about individual examples of catergories
the exemplar approach
Argues that we first learn some specific examples of a concept then we classify each new stimulus by deciding how closely it resembles those specific examples. Each example is called an exemplar
Serving as a model
Heit and Barsalou (1996
1. exemplar frequency and exemplar typicality did accurately predict which of the seven categories were most typical for the superordinate category "animal"
2. less typical exemplars increase the correlation
3. when asked a question about a category, people don't just consider prototypes, they also include information about less typical examples of the category
The exemplar approach
may be more suitable when you think about a category that has relatively few members
may be more suitable for categories with numerous members
these models of semantic memory propose a netlike organization of concepts in memory, with numerous interconnections.
The process through which activity in one node in a network flows outward to other nodes through associative links.
The Parallel Distributed Processing Approach
cognitive processes can be represented by a model in which activation flows through networks that link together a large number of simple, neuron-like units
Three Central Characteristics of PDP
1. Cognitive processes are based on parallel operations, rather than serial operations. Therefore, many patterns of activation may be proceeding simultaneously.
2. A network contains basic neuron-like units or nodes, which are connected together so that a specific node has many links to other nodes (hence the alternate name for the theory: connectionism). PDP theorists argue that most cognitive processes can be explained by the activation of these networks.
3. A concept is represented by the pattern of activity distributed throughout a set of nodes. Notice that this view is very different from the commonsense idea that all the information you know about a particular person or object is stored in one specific location in the brain.
Using individual cases to draw inferences about general information
in parallel distributed processing, a method used to fill in missing information about a particular person or object based on information from other similar people or objects.
Other important characteristics of PDP
1. The connections between these neuron-like units are weighted, and the connection weights determine how much activation one unit can pass on to another unit
2. When a unit reaches a critical level of activation, it may affect another unit, either by exciting it (if the connection weight is positive) or by inhibiting it (if the connection weight is negative
3. Every new piece of information you learn will change the strength of connections among relevant units by adjusting the connection weights
4. Sometimes we have only partial memory for some information, rather than complete, perfect memory. The brain's ability to provide partial memory is called graceful degradation (e.g., tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon, brain function after accident or stroke)
In the connectionist approach to memory, the brain's ability to provide partial memory.
schema—generalized knowledge about a situation, an event, or a person
a simple, well-structured sequence of events-in a specified order-that are associated with a highly familiar activity
theories propose that people encode "generic" information about a situation, then use this information to understand and remember new examples of the schema
Cognitive strategies or "rules of thumbs" used as shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks; do not guarantee a correct solution
The Status of Schemas and Memory Selection
Information describes a minor event, and time is limited.
Remember schema-consistent details accurately.
Do not remember schema-inconsistent details accurately.
Our tendency to remember having viewed a greater portion of a scene than was actually viewed
a memory process that stores the meaning of a message but not the exact words
word-for-word memory, as opposed to recall of the "gist" or general meaning
saying you detect a stimulus that is not there
constructive model of memory
The model by which people integrate information from individual sentences in order to construct larger ideas.
The Pragmatic Approach
pragmatic view of memory—people pay attention to the aspect of a message that is most relevant to their current goals
Murphy and Shapiro (1994) (continued)
correct recognition was higher for sentences from the sarcastic condition than for sentences in the bland condition
more false alarms for paraphrases of bland sentences than sarcastic sentences
more accurate in their verbatim memory for the sarcastic version than for the bland version
using background knowledge to incorporate new info into memory in a schema-consistent manner.
memory as the complex interaction between the participants' prior knowledge and the material presented; individual's unique interests and personal background often shape the contents of memory
"The War of the Ghosts" study—Native American story read and recalled by British students
General beliefs about characteristics that are presumed to be typical of each sex
Research on Inferences Based on Gender Stereotypes
Explicit Memory Task
Dunning and Sherman (1997)
read sentences followed by recognition-memory test
"new" sentences consistent or inconsistent with gender stereotypes
more likely to mistakenly "remember" a new sentence as "old" when it was consistent with a gender stereotype
Implicit Memory Tasks
Nosek, Banaji, and Greenwald (2002)
Implicit Association Test (IAT)—based on the principle that people can mentally pair related words together much more easily than they can pair unrelated words
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