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units 1 and 2
Terms in this set (113)
The process of imagining something that does not yet exist, but that has potential value, and making it real through the application of design, implementation, and production.
Unauthorized access of data, applications, services, networks and/or devices by bypassing underlying security mechanisms.
A process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problems solving operations
Patterns that can emerge when data is transformed using computational tools
To do things in order, one after another. Executing the statement one at a time, often called linear
Repetition. One complete step of a loop, repeated until a certain condition is met
Uses "if...then" to tell computer how to select a step or to tell the sequence that should be executed
A statement that has a particular outcome or result that is either true or false
The repetition of some code.
When it is unknown how many times a loop will iterate, usually we are waiting for an event to occur such as "repeat until...."
Executes a predetermined set of times for a loop to be repeated
A simple diagram with symbols showing the "flow" of a process
A command statement with a verb phrase that indicates an operation to perform (example: "move forward")
A specific adverb or adjective that further qualifies or limits the meaning of a word (example: left shoe)
Securing (or encrypting) information such that it is inaccessible by third parties.
Text that is not written in code such as an unencrypted message.
The result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm or cipher.
Also called substitution cipher. Substitutes each letter of the original, unencrypted message (plaintext)with a corresponding letter in the encrypted message(ciphertext)
More sophisticated algorithms used to improve encryption from Caesar Cipher by adding a key phrase
Measures taken to protect a computer or computer system against unauthorized access or attack
Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
The ability to limit access to information to a certain set of users
The certainty that information is accurate
The reliability of access to information
The process of determining whether someone or something is who or what they claim to be.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
Typically indicated with padlock icon in address bar
Validates the ownership of encrypted keys used in secured communications and are based on a trust model.
Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Attack
An attempt to make an online service unavailable by overwhelming it with traffic from multiple sources.
Part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting outward communication.
public key encryption
A non-symmetric encryption method that uses a paired public and private (asymmetric) key algorithm.
Code that is capable of copying itself and corrupting a system or destroying data.
A method of encryption involving one key for encryption and decryption.
The psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information
Obtaining confidential information by masquerading as an "official" person, site, or entity. A form of social engineering
Software that is intended to damage or disable computers and computer systems.
Uncertainty or being open to more than one interpretation.
A complex, but structured language, both written and spoken, that has evolved naturally in humans through use, repetition and adaptation.
A limited size language, usually developed by a small group for specific purposes, usually much simpler and structured.
visual programming language
A programming language that lets users drag and drop icons into organized blocks of code to create programs rather then typing text.
A programming language that is is easier for humans to read, write and parse. Guaranteed to be unambiguous.
A programming language that has little or no abstraction and communicates closely to the hardware using assembly or machine language. Less natural for humans.
Programs that programmers write in high-level languages
Machine-level instructions that are uniquely read by computer processors using patterns of 1's and 0's.
Source code that has been translated into machine code.
A program that translates high-level, human-readable languages into a corresponding string of 1's and 0's for computer processing.
Physical components of a computer built using multiple levels of abstraction such as transistors, logic gates, chips, memory, motherboard, special purpose cards, and storage devices.
Random-access memory consists of tiny electrical circuits that dynamically store frequently used program instruction to increase speed of the system (volatile).
External/auxiliary memory such as a USB flash drive, hard drive, etc.
Main storage or memory that stores data for quick access by the computer's processor (RAM)
Central Processing Unit
CPU - the processor or brains of the computer where calculations take place
An informal method or writing algorithmic instructions that do not necessarily follow grammatical rules and syntax of a particular language.
Program instructions are executed one at a time, in order.
Where no algorithm can be made that always leads to a correct yes or no answer.
A problem that cannot be solved using any algorithm.
There cannot be a program that will determine which computer programs will halt (or exit) and which programs will go on forever (infinite loop).
Gordon Moore accurately predicted that the number of transistors that could fit on a chip would roughly double every one to two years.
How well do algorithms perform at increasingly larger scales.
A mathematical concept used by computer scientists to determine how well algorithms scale. Performances classified into different categories.
A linear search method of finding a targeted value within a list, looking one at a time until a match is found.
A method of searching by dividing the search interval in half each time.
Doubling the size of a problem only requires one extra unit of work.
Trial and error method used to decode encrypted data such as passwords.
A method for deriving an approximate solution - Rules of Thumb but not guaranteed an accurately correct answer.
Computers that interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal.
A network of private computers infected with a malicious software and controlled as a group without the owners knowing.
The processing of transactions in the digital currency system, in which the records of current Bitcoin transactions, known as a blocks, are added to the record of past transactions, known as the block chain.
Technology devices and materials used to place, keep and retrieve data and can affect both the methods and costs of manipulating the data.
to examine or analyze
A file that is capable of being executed or run as a program in the computer.
How a user interacts with a program.
A shift in human history from traditional industry to an economy based on information computerization using analysis and thinking - AKA: Digital Age
A theoretical period beyond the information age where creativity and imagination will become the primary creators of economic value.
A systematic plan or sequence of instructions for a computer to solve a problem.
A simple diagram with symbols showing the "flow" of a process
visual programming language
A programming language structured similar to a flowchart (VPL) that utilizes blocks of code - example: Scratch
An object in Scratch that performs functions through scripting.
Blocks of code that trigger corresponding behavior (example: Green Flag - starts program)
When blocks of code are executed at a given time by communicating (or broadcasting) a message.
Purple-colored blocks of code in Scratch that are used to control a sprite's appearance.
The background of a project in Scratch which can have scripts, backdrops, sound, etc.
A sequence of instructions that is repeated until a certain condition is met.
A modified and shared version of an uploaded existing project
The appearance of a sprite.
A placeholder to store a particular value or attribute such as x and y in an algebraic equation or calculation.
Attributes about the environment that the computer needs to remember in order to function properly.
A block in Scratch with round edges that contains a value (numbers, sentences, etc.) and can be used inside other blocks.
A description of what the computer is doing or the values of variables at any given moment.
A whole number; a number that is not a fraction that is used in programs.
User interaction with a program via clicking, mouse movement, or keyboard entry.
The program code and current activity that is being executed in a computer program.
The x and y coordinates on the stage in Scratch
Light-blue colored Boolean blocks that are used to detect different factors of a project such as touching.
A variable for a particular value or attribute.
Medium-blue colored blocks used to control a sprite's movement in Scratch.
Dark-green colored blocks of code in Scratch that are used to control the pen aspect in Scratch.
A set of instructions within an if block that is executed only if the condition in the if statement is met.
if else block
A set of instructions within an if block is executed if a specified condition is true and instructions within the else block are executed if the same condition is false.
Only executes if a certain designated condition is true.
Instruction in a computer program that can cause a computer to begin executing a different sequence of instructions.
Repeatedly branching into two equal parts. A clear distinction between two things - yes or no.
The direction the computer program moves from instruction to instruction over time. Can also be controlled by if statements and other binary conditions.
Binary values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
Light-green colored blocks of code used to handle strings and math equations in Scratch.
Turning on or off (binary)
Where different logic structures sequence, selection and loops are combined or nested in one another.
The modulus (mod) operator is used to return the remainder of a division operation.
The speed of a programming directive which is located in the sounds tab in Scratch
The process of removing or suppressing details to create a manageable level of complexity.
A shared boundary across which two or more separate components of a computer system exchange information. (example: accelerator and brake pedals on a car)
A named collection of steps in an algorithm that can be reused anytime it is needed without restating the detailed procedures (abstraction).
A variable that defines a procedure or sets the conditions of an operation (example: REPEAT n times).
To identify and remove errors from a computer program.
A process for calculating a desired result by means of a repeated cycle of operations.
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