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suspensory ligaments

secures the lens to the ciliary body


fluid that fills the anterior segment of the eye, provides nutrients to the lens and the cornea


fibrous tunic, white and opaque


area of retina that lacks photoreceptors

ciliary body

muscular structure that manipulates the lens

choroid coat

nutritive (vascular) tunic of the eye

canal of schlemm

drains the aqueous humor the eye


tunic concerned with image formation

vitreous humor

gel-like substance, filling the posterior segment of the eyeball, helps reinforce the eyeball

far point of vision

the point beyond which accommodation is unnecessary

concave lens

lens that is thickest at the edges, diverges the light rays

focal point

the point at which light rays are converged by a convex lens

visible light

the electromagnetic waves to which the photoreceptors of the eyes respond

near point of vision

the closest point at which clear focus is possible


variety of cones

night blindness

result of vitamin a deficiency

accommodation pupillary reflex

reflex constriction of the pupils when viewing close objects


medial movement of the eyes during focusing on close objects


normal vision




light bending


condition of increasing pressure inside the eye, resulting from blocked drainage of aqueous humor


blurred vision, resulting from unequal curvations of the lens or cornea


ability to focus for close vision, What is the ability of the eye to focus specifically on close objects (those less than 20-feet away)?


freshy elevation at the medial canthus


angular point where the eyelids meet


mucous secreting membrane of the eyelid that folds back to cover the eyeball except for the cornea

ciliary glands

glands between the eyelashes

meibomian glands

modified sebaceous glands embedded in the tarsal plates, lubricate the eye


number of external eye mucles


inflammation of the conjunctiva, eyes are red and inflammed


infectious form of conjuctivitis


white of the eye


clear portion of the sclera (front of eye), no blood vessels


under the sclera, rich blood supply, had dark pigment to prevent light from scattering

ciliary body

lens attached to it, smooth muscle


pigments, opening to the pupil

circular muscles

these muscles contract the pupil constricts in bright light

raidal muscles

these muscles contrac the pupil dilates in dim light


innermost sensory tunic, contains millions of photoreceptors


more dense at the periphery, for night vision, no color distingtion


bright light, 3 types, dense at the center of the retina

macula lutea

yellowish spot at the central region of the retina, contains the fovea centralis

fovea centralis

lateral to each blind spot, contains only cones, sharpest point of vision

blue, gree, green/red

cone types

color blindness

problens with the cones


suspended by ciliary body, hardened jelly

aqueous humor

provides nutrients to lens and cornea and maintains intracular pressure, reabsorbed into venous blood through the canal of schlemm

vitreous humor

gel-like, prevents the eye from collapsing

optic chaisma

fibers from the medial side of each eye cross over to the opposite side (remember brain diagram)

optic tracts

neuron fibers tracts from the optic nerve that go to the thalamus and then to the occipital lobe of the brain

photopupillary reflex

bright light causes pupils to constrict (reflex)


image if focused behind the retina, eyeball is too short, farsightedness


damage to the visual cortex causes loss of vision to the same side of both eyes...cause=CVA(cerebral vascular accident/stroke)

medial and lateral canthus

where eyelid meets on each side

lacrimal glands

release a dilute salt soltion on eye from small ducts

lacrimal canals

tears flush across eyeball to here

lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct

where tears end up

lateral rectus

moves eye laterally

medial rectus

moves eye medially

superiour rectus

elevates eye

inferior rectus

depresses eye

inferior oblique

elevates eye and turns laterally

superior oblique

depressed eye and turns it laterally

bipolar cells

middle ground between rod/cones and ganglion cells

ganglion cells

bring impules to the optic nerve


coats filled w fluids to maintain shape


A delicate membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the part of the outer surface of the eyeball is called the

shape of the lens

Focusing the light rays involves which of the following?

3, 1, 5, 6, 2, 4, 7

Choose the correct path of light entering the human eye.
1. cornea
2. lens
3. conjunctiva
4. vitreous humor
5. aqueous humor
6. pupil
7. retina

conjunctiva; cornea

A delicate membrane, the _______ lines the eyelids and covers part of the outer surface of the eyeball. It ends at the edge of the _______ by fusing with its epithelium.

to make an oily secretion to lubricate the eye

What is the function of the meibomian glands?


The only special sense which is NOT functional when the child is born is:

cornea and sclera

What makes up the outermost tunic of the eye?

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