Cognitive Process - Chapter 11
Problem Solving and Creativity
Terms in this set (39)
Finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal, but the solution is not immediately obvious and obstacles block your path
the situation at the outset of a problem, including any existing constraints
In problem solving, the condition that occurs when a problem has been solved.
things that get in your way when you are going somewhere or trying to reach a goal
understanding the problem
construct a mental representation of the problem, based on the information provided in the problem and your own previous experience
Paying Attention to Important Information
1. identifying and then attending to the most relevant information
2. effective problem solvers read the description of a problem very carefully, paying particular attention to inconsistencies
An organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
the first step in solving a problem; it involves interpreting or defining the problem
Anything that meaningfully represents something else
chart showing all possible combinations of items
1. instructions for assembling objects
2. hierarchical tree diagram
our ability to solve a problem is tied into the specific context in which we learned to solve that problem
we often use helpful info in our immediate environment to create spatial representations
embodied cognition approach
We often use our own body and our own motor actions, in order to express our abstract thoughts and knowledge; importance of own body as context.
conditions in which the research is conducted are similar to natural setting in which the results will be applied
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
In semantic memory, the specific type of algorithm, trying all possible answers, using a specified system.
A general problem-solving strategy that typically produces a correct solution..
strategy in which you ignore some alternatives and explore only those alternatives that seem especially likely to produce a solution
The Analogy Approach
using a solution to a similar, earlier problem to help in solving a new problem
determining the real problem: that is. The abstract puzzle underneath all the details
A set of problems that have the same underlying structures and solutions but different specific details.
specific elements that make up a problem
the underlying core that they must understand in order to solve the problem
The Means-Ends Heuristic
1. identify the "ends" you want and then figure out the "means" to reach them
2. divide into subproblems
3. reducing the difference between the initial state and the goal state for each subproblem
4. can be used in either forward or backward direction
most effective and flexible
The Hill-Climbing Heuristic
When choice point is reached in using a heuristic, one selects a route that leads directly to the goal.
1. useful when only the immediate next step can be seen
2. less direct alternative may have greater long-term benefits
3. encourages short-term goals, rather than long-term solutions
Aspects of recognition that depend first on the information about the stimulus that comes to the brain from the sensory receptors.
Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
consistent exceptional performance on representative tasks for a particular area
The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
A type of cognitive processing in which only one item is handled at a given time, and one step must be completed before proceeding to the next step.
1. experts better than novices at monitoring their own problem solving
2. experts better at judging the difficulty of the problem, allocating time, recovering from errors
3. experts underestimate the amount of time novices will require to solve a problem in the experts' area of specialization
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
The belief that one has a certain amount of intelligence and other skills, so that no amount of effort will improve performance.
Believe that you can cultivate your intelligence and other skills. You challenge yourself to perform better.
assign stable uses to an object and fail to think about the features of the object that might be useful in helping solve a problem
The Nature of Stereotype Threat
struggling with a popular stereotype may cause additional anxiety that may lead to less effective problem solving
A disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. Unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects.
A problem that initially seems impossible to solve, but a correct alternative suddenly enters a person's mind.
Large working-memory capacity = solve insight problems faster
a problem that is solved gradually, using memory, reasoning skills, and a routine set of strategies
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