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Cognitive Process - Chapter 6
Memory Strategies and Metacognition
Terms in this set (28)
Mental activity, such as rehearsal, that enhances memory performance.
A term used to describe what, how, and why people know what they know when they know it.
attributing meaning to the object; type of processing
Cognitive process in which learners embellish on new information based on what they already know.
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
memory trace should be different from all other memory traces
the finding that information bearing on the self is processed more thoroughly and more deeply, and hence remembered better, than other information.
recall is often better if the context at the time of encoding matches the context at the time of retrieval
People overestimate the number of answers they will correctly supply on a future test
The Total-Time Hypothesis
(def.) - amount learned depends on total time devoted to learning
The Retrieval-Practice Effect
you try to recall important concepts from memory; if retrieval is difficult - and you succeed - your learning is enhanced
The Distributed-Practice Effect
in memory, the research finding that people learn more if they spread their learning trials over time, rather than learning the material all at once (also known as the spacing effect)
The Testing Effect
people who test themselves on information, instead of just studying it, remember it better long-term.
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
A learning situation that is somewhat challenging, but not too difficult.
the processing of perceptual-like information in the absence of an external source for the perceptual information
A memory strategy in which the learner identifies an English word (the keyword) that sounds similar to the new word; then an image is created that links the keyword with the meaning of the new word.
Mnemonics Using Organization
organization—bring order to material to be learned, deep processing, easier retrieval
Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory.
Mnemonics - Organization: organizational mnemonic that arranges items in a series from general to specific, ie chapter outline
compose a word or sentence using the first letters of the words you are trying to remember (e.g., ROY G. BIV)
make up stories that link a series of words together
Remembering to do things in the future
external memory aid
Any device, external to one's self, which facilitates memory in some way; this memory aid is especially helpful on prospective-memory tasks.
Metamemory on an Item-by-Item Basis
Metamemory can be highly accurate when we consider people's predictions about which individual items they'll remember and which ones they'll forget
A set of beliefs about oneself
accurate in judging what they do or dont understand
students often believe that they understood something they have read because they are familiar with its general topic. However, they often fail to retain specific information
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