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142 terms

Chapter 11 Respiratory System

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adenoids
lymphatic tissue forming a prominence on the wall of the recess of the nasopharynx
alveoli
air sacs in the lungs
apex
upper portion of the lung
asymptomatic
without symptoms
base
lowest part of the lung, resting on the diaphragm
bronchi
windpipe, two main branches leading from the trachea to the lungs, providing air movement
bronchiole
one of the smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes
capillaries
the smallest of a body's blood vessels They connect arterioles and venules
diaphragm
the musculomebranous wall separating the abdomen from the thoracic cavity
epiglottis
thin, leaf-shaped structure located immediately posterior to the root of the tongue; covers the entrance of the larynx when swallows
glottis
sound-producing apparatus of the larynx; two vocal folds and the intervening space
laryngalgia
pain in the larynx
laryngopharynx
the lower part of the pharynx
larynx
voice box; enlarged upper end of the trachea
mediastinum
mass of organs and tissues separating the lungs; contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and bronchi
nares
external nostrils
nasopharynx
part of the pharynx located above the soft palate
oropharynx
central portion of the pharynx lying between the soft palate and upper portion of the epiglottis
palatine tonsils
lymphatic tissue located in the depression of the mucous membrane of fauces and pharynx
paranasal sinuses
hollow areas or cavities within the shull that communicate with the nasal cavity
parietal pleura
portion of the pleura that is closest to the ribs
pharynx
the throat; passageway for air from nasal cavity to larynx and food from mouth to esophagus
phrenic nerve
the nerve know as the motor nerve to the diaphragm
pleura
double-folded membrane that lines the thoracic cavity
pleural space
space that separates the visceral and parietal pleurae
pulmonary parenchyma
functional units of the lungs which have very thin walls that allow for the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
septum
wall dividing two cavities
sputum
substance coughed up from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea that is expelled through the mouth
thorax
chest; part of the body between the base of the neck and the diaphragm
trachea
windpipe; a cylinder-shaped tube lined with rings of cartilage
visceral pleura
portion of the pleura that is closest to the internal organs
apnea
without breathing
bradypnea
slow breathing
cyanosis
bluish condition of the skin
dysphonia
difficulty in speaking
dyspnea
air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing
epistaxis
nosebleed; hemorrhage from the nose
expectoration
act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs
hemoptysis
expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs
hypercapnia
increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypoxemia
insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood
hypoxia
deficiency of oxygen
Kussmaul respirations
very deep, gasping type of respiration associated with sever diabetic acidosis
orthopnea
respiratory condition in which there is discomfort in breathing in any but erect, sitting, or standing position
pleural rib
friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space
rales
abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest
rhinorrhea
thin, watery discharge from the nose
rhonchi
rales or rattlings in the throat
stridor
harsh sound during respiration; high-pitched and resembling the blowing of wind, due to obstruction of air passages
tachypnea
abnormal rapidity of breathing
wheeze
whisling sound or sighing sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway
coryza
inflammation of the respiratory mucous membranes
croup
childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, tachypnea, inspiratory stridor, and laryngeal spasm
diphtheria
serious infectious disease affecting the nose, pharynx, or larynx, usually resulting in sore throat, dysphonia, and fever
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx
pertussis
whooping cough;acute upper respiratory infectious disease caused by the Bordetella pertussis bacterium
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynz
rhinitis
inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose
sinusitis
inflammation of a sinus
tonsillitis
infammation of the palatine tonsils
asthma
paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane
bronchiectasis
chronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung
bronchitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes
bronchogenic carcinoma
lung cancer; malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi
emphysema
chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls
empyema
pus in a body cavity
hyaline membrane disease
respiratory distress syndrome RDS of the premature infant; impairment of the function of respiration in the premature newborn
influenza
the flu; highly contagious viral infection of the repiratiory tract transmitted by airborne droplet infection
lung abscess
localized collection of pus formed by the destruction of lung tissue and microorganisms by white blood cells that have migrated to the area to fight infection
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, resulting in compression of the underlying portion of the lung, with resultant dyspnea
pleuritis (pleurisy)
imflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura
pneumonia
inflammation of the lungs
pneumothorax
collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity
pulmonary edema
swelling of the lungs caused by an adnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, either in the alveoli or the interstitial spaces
pulmonary embolism
obstruction of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus that dislodges from another location and is carried through the venous system to the vessels of the lungs
pulmonary heart disease
hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall; heart failure resulting from pulmonary disease
sudden infant death syndrome
crib death; completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant
tuberculosis
infectious desease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis tubercle bacillus and characterixed by inflammatory infilrations, formation of tubercles, and caseous necrosis in the tissues of the lungs
anthracosis
coal worker's pneumoconiosis; accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to breating smoke or coal dust
absestosis
lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles
byssinosis
brown lung disease; lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton, flax, and hemp
silicosis
lung disease resulting from inhalation of silica dust, characterized by formation of small nodules
bronchoscopy
examination of the interior of the bronchi using a lighted, flexible tube known as a bronchoscope
laryngoscopy
examination of the interior of the larynx using a lighted, flexible tube
thoracentesis
involves the use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space
tonsillectomy
removal of the palatine tonsils
tuberculin skin test
determine past or present tuberculosis infection present in the body
ABG
Arterial Blood Gas
AFB
acid-fast bacillus
AP
Anteroposterior
ARD
acute respiratory disease
ARDS
ADULT RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME
ARF
acute respiratory failure
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CO2
Carbon Dioxide
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CXR
chest x-ray
DPT
diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
IPPB
intermittent positive pressure breathing
LLL
left lower lobe (lung)
LUL
left upper lobe (of lung)
O2
Oxygen
PA
Posteroanterior
PaCO2
partial pressure of carbon dioxide
PaO2
partial pressure of oxygen
PCP
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
PFT
pulmonary function test
PPD
purified protein derivative
R
respiration
RDS
respiratory distress syndrome
RLL
right lower lobe (of lung)
RML
right middle lobe of lung
RUL
right upper lobe (of lung)
SIDS
sudden infant death syndrome
SOB
shortness of breath
T&A
Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy
TB
Tuberculosis
TPR
temperature, pulse, respiration
TST
tuberculin skin testing
URI
upper respiratory infection
alveol/o
alveolus
bronch/o
bronchus
bronchiol/o
bronchus
-ectasis
stretching or dilatation
epiglott/o
epiglottis
laryng/o
larynx
nas/o
nose
orth/o
straight
pector/o
chest
pharyng/o
pharynx
phren/o
pleura
pne/o
breathing
pneum/o
lungs; air
pneumon/o
lungs; air
pulmon/o
lungs
rhin/o
nose
-scope
an instrument used to view
sinus/o
sinus
thor/a
chest
thorac/o
chest
trache/o
trachea