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a system of classification which groups taxa together according to the characteristics which have most recently evolved
are characteristics which have the same structure and function and which evolved early on in the organisms being studied
characteristics which have the same structure and function but which evolved more recently as modifications of a previous trait
a monophyletic group composed of the most recent common ancestor of the group and all its descendants
usually made up of several species
characteristics which may have the same function but they do not necessarily have the same structure and they are not derived from a common ancestor
the unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies in a gene pool of a population from one generation to the next
involves fertile individuals moving from one population to to another which means they are removing specific genes from one population and introducing the genes into another population
a type of divergence in a population where an ancestral stock splits into groups which share some geographical territory but specialization for particular niches and reduced fitness of the heterozygotes leads to breeding separation
leads to superficial similarities due to organisms living in the same habitat or having the same lifestyle even though they are not closely related (population will look similar)
occurs when different groups arise from a common ancestor due to adaptive radiation
occurs when different species maintain a certain degree of similarity while both populations are changing and evolving along independent paths
Gradualism And Punctuated Equilibrium
gradualism is a slight change in the population of each generation so that over time these changes lead to the evolution of a new species. punctuated equilibrium is when species remain changed for long lengths of time in a period of stasis, to be replaced very quickly by a new species (grasshoppers)
shifts the population in one direction favoring a phenotype at one end of the variation
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