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Motor Learning Exam 4 Final
Terms in this set (172)
Which of the following do transfer tests in motor learning research not involve?
The practiced skill one day after practice ends
The general rule of thumb for predicting positive transfer between two motor skills is that the degree of positive transfer is related to the
degree of similarity between the parts of the two skills.
The transfer-appropriate-processing theory accounts for why positive transfer occurs by stating that positive transfer is due to the similarity of the
cognitive processes required by two motor skills.
Negative transfer can be expected for which of the following situations?
Learning to hit a tennis forehand after having learned to play badminton
The generally accepted view about the direction of bilateral transfer between two limbs is that it is
The cognitive explanation for bilateral transfer proposes that bilateral transfer occurs because the required
cognitive components are similar.
The motor control explanation for bilateral transfer has been supported by research evidence showing
EMG activity in the non-performing limb when the opposite limb performs the skill.
Bilateral transfer can be related to the concept of the generalized motor program (GMP) because muscle selection in performing a skill is
a parameter of the GMP.
Performance of a new experience that is hindered by experience with a previous skill is an example of ________ transfer
We can historically trace the view that transfer occurs because of the similar characteristics of two skills to Thorndike's ________ theory
_______ transfer can be expected if two tasks involve many similar stimulus components.
The ________ theory states that the primary reason for positive transfer between two motor skills is the similarity of the cognitive processes required by the skills
An important characteristic of ________ transfer is that the effect is typically temporary
One characteristic of a skill that typically will lead to negative transfer when it is changed is the ________ structure of a skill
If an experiment is designed to investigate whether bilateral transfer occurs for the non-preferred arm, both arms are involved in the pretests and posttests, but only the ________ arm performs the skill during the practice trials.
If the same amount of bilateral transfer occurs from one limb to the other limb, then it is called ________ bilateral transfer.
According to the generalized motor program theory of motor control, bilateral transfer can be expected because learning a skill results in the creation of an abstract memory representation for an action in which ________ are a parameter of the program
The dynamic pattern theory of motor control explains bilateral transfer by stating that the learning of a skill involves the learning of ________ dynamics without reference to the limbs involved.
(T/F)Transfer of learning tests provide an effective means of assessing the learning of a skill following practice
(T/F)The use of Gentile's taxonomy of motor skills in a physical rehabilitation situation provides a good example of how the transfer of learning principle can be implemented in a skill-training situation
(T/F)The only reason why positive transfer occurs is that the components of the skills or the contexts in which a skill is performed have a high degree of similarity.
(T/F)One of the reasons for negative transfer is the initial cognitive confusion that occurs when a person must make a different movement in a familiar environmental context.
(T/F)The amount of bilateral transfer from the preferred to the non-preferred limb is greater than from the non-preferred to the preferred limb
(T/F)When you perform a motor skill with your right arm, activity in the same muscles can be detected in your left arm
(T/F)The only hypothesis developed to explain why bilateral transfer occurs proposes that invariant characteristics of the generalized motor program acquired with the practice of one limb are applied to the performance of the skill with the contralateral limb.
A procedure that some researchers use to investigate the question of what an observer perceives when observing a demonstration is known as the
Which of the following has research shown is not what the observer of a skilled demonstration perceives and uses which results in facilitating the learning of the observed skill? The observer perceives and uses the
observed environmental context conditions.
When compared to the use of verbal instructions, which of the following will the use of a skilled demonstration result in a greater learning benefit?
Motor skills that require the learning of a new coordination pattern.
A beginner can benefit from observing another beginner practice a skill especially when the observer can
hear the augmented feedback given to the other beginner.
Research investigating the influence of the frequency of demonstrating a skill has shown that
more frequency is better than less frequency.
Research that has compared the use of visual and auditory models when the skill to be learned involved moving at a criterion speed has shown that the
visual model was not effective, but the auditory model was.
The view that modeling benefits skill learning because the model helps the learner develop an accessible representation in memory that will serve as a guide for performing the skill is known as the
cognitive mediation theory.
Which of the following attention-related concepts is essential to apply to the delivery of verbal instructions about how to perform a motor skill?
Limited attention capacity
Which of the following describes the results of research that has investigated the use of verbal instructions that direct attention to specific movement components of a skill? The instructions
In experiments in which participants manually tracked a complex pattern that consisted of two segments that were random patterns on every trial and one segment that was the same every trial, the results showed that the participants improved
more on the repeated segment than the two random segments, and reported they were not aware that one segment was the same on every trial.
Research has shown that to achieve the best learning of skills that require both speed and accuracy, the initial verbal instructions should emphasize
accuracy rather than speed.
Verbal cues said out loud while a person is learning or performing a skill can help
both beginners and skilled performers.
Verbal cues seem to work because they
direct attention to relevant environmental context information and prompt a specific sequence of movements to be performed.
A term that has been used to describe the type of learning involved when a visual model is used to demonstrate a skill is ________ learning
Observation of another beginner practicing a skill seems to work best when the observer can hear the ________ given by the instructor.
From a perception point of view, the benefit of observing a skilled demonstration is that the visual system picks up information about the ________ characteristics of the skill.
Observing skilled demonstrations is least likely to be better than verbal instructions for the learning of skills for which new ________ characteristics are learned
A neurological basis for the learning benefit of observational learning has been established by the discovery of ________ neurons in the brain.
The view of why modeling benefits skill learning that argues that the visual system is capable of automatically processing visual information and constraining the motor system to act accordingly is called the ________ view
It is important that the verbal instructions given to a beginner should not exceed that person's limited ________ capacity to attend to information.
The ________ hypothesis is the most likely explanation for the research finding that verbal instructions that direct attention to specific movements of a skill hinder learning.
The role that ________ learning can play in the learning of open motor skills has been shown by research which has demonstrated the learning of environmental context regulatory conditions without the learner being consciously aware of the characteristics of the conditions
Verbal ________ given along with a demonstration can supplement the visual information and help a person better understand how to perform skills
(T/F)The terms modeling and observational learning often are used interchangeably with the term demonstration when they refer to the learning of motor skills
(T/F)Demonstration should be the preferred method of providing information about how to perform a motor skill.
(T/F)An experiment by Green and Flowers, which involved participants in learning a computer-based catching task, showed that explicit verbal instructions about the rules underlying the movement of the "ball" were better for learning the skill than instructions that established a discovery learning situation
(T/F)The point-light technique is a procedure that researchers have used to support the hypothesis that the critical information observers of skilled demonstrations detect consists of the invariant relationships in coordinated movement.
(T/F)Research has shown that beginners who observe other beginners practicing a skill will perform at a higher level when they begin to perform the skill than the beginners they observed.
(T/F)To help beginning dancers learn the rhythmic structure of a dance routine, either auditory or visual demonstration will be similarly effective for learning
(T/F)Research supporting the cognitive mediation theory of the benefit of demonstration has shown that observational learning involves the development of effective error detection and correction.
(T/F)Verbal instructions that direct the performer's attention to the intended movement outcomes will lead to better learning and performance than instructions that direct attention to the movements used to perform the skill.
When augmented feedback tells the performer which movement characteristics produced the movement outcome, the type of augmented feedback is known as
knowledge of performance.
If you are told "your score was 16 on that attempt," the type of augmented feedback you received is known as
knowledge of results.
When augmented feedback serves to encourage a person to continue striving to achieve a performance goal, augmented feedback functions as
The experiment by Wallace and Hagler in which verbal encouragement given to people learning a skill led to a certain amount of performance improvement but verbal KP led to a greater amount of improvement, the KP in this situation
was not essential for skill learning, but enhanced it.
Comparisons of augmented feedback which are based on performance errors and correct performance have usually shown that
error-based feedback is better for facilitating motor skill learning.
Experimental evidence shows that when quantitative and qualitative KR have been compared in terms of their effects during practice when learning a skill, the results have shown that quantitative KR leads to
no better performance than qualitative KR early in practice but better than qualitative KR later in practice.
In experiments in which erroneous KR was given to participants for skills that could be learned on the basis of the task-intrinsic feedback without KR, the results have shown that participants
ignored the task-intrinsic feedback and performed according to the erroneous KR.
Which of the following statements about descriptive and prescriptive verbal KP is correct?
Prescriptive verbal KP is preferable to descriptive verbal KP early in practice.
When you give a person augmented feedback based on a "performance bandwidth," you give feedback only when the person's performance is
outside a specific range of correctness.
If videotape replay is used as augmented feedback for beginners, it should be used
only with the instructor present.
To help a person learn to activate a specific muscle group to produce a desired movement, the type of biofeedback that has been shown to be effective is the
EMG results from their movement.
Which of the following is an example of the use of concurrent augmented feedback?
Driving on a narrow street car simulator; using EMG biofeedback hearing beeping sound; performing knee-extension device seeing angle displacement---- all of these
One activity shown to actually benefit skill learning when it occurs in the KR-delay interval is
estimating your own error for the just completed response.
The "guidance hypothesis," which relates to the frequency of KR, takes issue with which traditional viewpoint about the best frequency for KR?
The more frequently KR is given, the better the learning will be.
If a person throws a series of 50 darts at a target that cannot be seen and is shown the results of each set of 10 throws at the end of every 10 throws, the augmented feedback technique is called the
summary augmented feedback technique.
When the source of information about a response is the person's own sensory system, the type of feedback is called ________.
When a computer graphic showing arm velocity during the performance of a skill is shown to a person, the type of augmented feedback is called ________.
knowledge of performance (KP)
Is the KR statement "your arm moved too fast" an example of "qualitative" or "quantitative" KP? ________
Verbal KP statements that specify what a person needs to do to correct a performance error are called ________ verbal KP statements.
When EMG or heart rate is given to people as augmented feedback, the general term used to describe this type of augmented feedback is ________.
When augmented feedback is given while a person is performing a skill or movement, it is known as ________ augmented feedback
The interval of time after the completion of a response and before KR is given is the ________ interval.
The technique used by Winstein and Schmidt (1990) that yielded the most effective means of reducing the frequency of augmented feedback was called the ________ technique
Research evidence shows that when augmented feedback is given to a beginner on every practice trial, it can lead to the beginner becoming ________ on it, which typically leads to poor performance when the augmented feedback is not available
The _______ hypothesis proposes that augmented feedback on every practice trial has a positive effect on practice performance, but has a negative effect on learning the skill.
(T/F)If you see where your golf ball goes after you hit it, the visual feedback you receive is known as knowledge of results
(T/F)The only reason to give augmented feedback to a beginner learning a motor skill is to facilitate their achievement of the action goal of the skill.
(T/F)Research has shown that it is possible to learn some motor skills without receiving augmented feedback
(T/F)When a beginner receives erroneous KR after each practice trial even though he or she could learn the skill without receiving KR, the beginner typically ignores the KR.
(T/F)Augmented feedback that tells a beginner those aspects of the performance that were correct can serve a motivational role to encourage the person.
(T/F)Quantitative KR leads to better motor skill learning than qualitative KR
(T/F)It is preferable to give prescriptive verbal KP to beginners rather than descriptive verbal KP.
(T/F)Concurrent augmented feedback always has negative effects on motor skill learning.
(T/F)Research evidence shows that you can hinder the learning of a motor skill by a beginner by delaying the augmented feedback too long
(T/F)Giving augmented feedback to a beginner only when he or she requests it is better than giving the augmented feedback on every trial
Research has shown that when a person experiences a practice condition in which the likelihood of making errors early in practice is high, transfer performance is
better than that of a practice condition that kept errors to a minimum.
Regulatory conditions in a motor skill performance situation include
speed of a tennis ball during a rally.
According to Gentile, developing variable practice experiences for closed skills should focus on varying
the nonregulatory conditions related to the skill.
For open skills, regulatory conditions
can change from one performance to another and during the movement execution.
Contextual interference can be considered as a continuum ranging from low to high for the amount of interference created by the practice schedule. Which of the following types of schedules describes a low-to-high continuum of practice schedules?
In experiments comparing different levels of contextual interference during motor skill practice, the results typically show that the
low contextual interference schedule is better during practice, but the high contextual interference schedule shows better transfer performance.
Research has shown that blocked practice consistently leads to poor performance
on transfer tests that involve novel skill variations or performance contexts.
In experiments in which beginners learned different types of badminton serves, which of the following type of practice schedule resulted in the worst performance on a transfer test?
In the experiment by Hall et al., which involved skilled baseball players taking extra batting practice to improve their hitting of three different types of pitches, the results demonstrated that the contextual interference effect is
applicable to skilled performers.
In experiments in which participants are asked during practice trials to predict how well they think they perform on a retention test, the results show that participants experiencing a blocked schedule will
overestimate their retention test performance.
The hypothesis that explains the contextual interference effect based on the argument that between-trial interference causes us to forget critical information encoded on the previous trial is called the
action plan reconstruction hypothesis.
Which of the following situations does not support the specificity of practice hypothesis?
The practice schedules used to practice multiple variations of a skill.
An example of a type of practice that fits well with the view that errors can benefit learning is commonly referred to as ________.
discovery learning [Also acceptable: problem-solving]
According to Gentile's learning model, if an open skill is being practiced, it is essential to vary the ________ conditions related to the skill
The practice schedule that involves the highest amount of contextual interference is the ________ practice schedule
The practice schedule that involves the lowest amount of contextual interference is the ________ practice schedule
In the contextual interference experiment by Lee and Magill, the practice schedule that yielded the same results as the random schedule was the ________ practice schedule.
Beginning badminton players learned the long, short, and drive serves best when they followed a ________ schedule to practice the serves
The term that means "what we know about what we know" and is used in reference to people making judgments about how much they are learning is ________.
The explanation of the contextual interference effect that proposes that the benefit of a random practice schedule is that variations of the skill can be simultaneously compared and contrasted in working memory is known as the ________ hypothesis.
According to Proteau's hypothesis about the specificity of learning, motor skill learning is specific to the sources of ________ information available during practice
sensory/perceptual [Also acceptable: either sensory or perceptual]
(T/F)The term practice variability refers to the variety of movement and context characteristics the learner experiences while practicing a skill.
(T/F)Experiments designed to demonstrate the benefit of practice variability typically compare the retention test performance of a constant practice condition and a variable practice condition.
(T/F)The guideline for implementing practice variability for the learning of open skills is to vary both regulatory and nonregulatory conditions.
(T/F)A schedule that organizes the practice of several skill variations in a serial order is an example of a practice schedule that involves a low amount of contextual interference
(T/F)A limitation of the contextual interference effect is that it has been demonstrated in laboratory conditions but not in conditions outside the laboratory
(T/F)A limitation of the contextual interference effect is that it applies only to beginners and not to skilled performers of motor skills
(T/F)Research has shown that people who practice in a blocked practice schedule tend to overestimate how well they are learning during practice
(T/F)Research evidence has provided support for both the elaboration and action-plan reconstruction hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the contextual interference effect
(T/F)"Home field advantage" can be explained in part by what we know about incidental learning as it relates to the environmental context.
When related to motor skills, the term task complexity refers to the
number of components in the task.
When related to motor skills, the term task organization refers to the
spatial-temporal relationships among the parts of the task.
According to the Naylor and Briggs hypothesis, whole practice of a motor skill is recommended for skills that are
low in task complexity and high in task organization.
If a part-practice strategy is recommended for practicing a skill, the parts of the skill that should be practiced separately from other parts are
relatively independent parts.
The term natural unit of parts of a skill describes a guideline for determining
which components of a skill should be grouped together to practice as parts.
Which of the following describes a simplification strategy for helping people acquire a complex skill?
Performing a dance; Hitting a baseball off a tee; Adding a rhythmic beat to practice--- all of these
An important benefit of the progressive-part practice method is that it helps to
restrict attention demands on the individual during practice.
If a skill should not be physically separated for part practice, an alternative means of achieving the benefits of part practice is to
direct your attention specifically to a part of the skill you are having difficulty with.
To learn an asymmetric bimanual skill in which one hand must perform a more difficult task than the other hand, the preferred practice approach for learning this skill is to practice
the more difficult task hand first, then the easier task hand.
A motor skill that is low in task organization and high in task complexity should be practiced by the ________ method.
The part practice strategy that seems especially applicable to helping a person learn an asymmetric bimanual coordination skill is the ________ method.
A progressive-part method of practicing a skill has also been called a ________ method of part-task training.
If you practiced juggling scarves before juggling tennis balls, the practice strategy you would be using is called the ________ method
A drummer who has to learn to perform a piece of music that requires one hand to play a certain rhythm while the other hand plays a different rhythm, should practice according to the ________ method.
According to the experiment by Knapp and Dixon, to learn to juggle three objects, which is a complex task that is high in task organization, practice should engage the _______ method
Making a complex skill less difficult is known as the ________ method.
The simplification technique known as "miming" [is / is not] a recommended procedure to facilitate learning a skill.
(T/F)When the term complexity is used to refer to a motor skill characteristic, it is synonymous with the term difficulty
(T/F)If a motor skill is characterized by a low level of organization, the component parts of the skill are spatially and temporally interdependent.
(T/F)Before you determine whether to use a whole or part strategy to practice a skill, it is important to first do a task analysis to assess the complexity and organization characteristics of the skill
(T/F)An important motor learning principle to apply to any part-practice strategy is that positive transfer should occur between the practiced parts and the performance of the whole skill
(T/F)A skill such as twisting the lid of a jar on to the jar is an example of an asymmetric bimanual coordination skill that would benefit from the simplification part-practice strategy.
(T/F)The fractionization part-practice strategy is also referred to as the progressive-part strategy.
(T/F)Research has shown that the segmentation part-practice strategy will facilitate the learning of a musical score on a piano.
(T/F)The use of a virtual reality environment is a good example of implementing a simplification strategy for learning a skill.
If a person visually imagines himself or herself performing a skill from the perspective of an observer, the type of mental practice is referred to as
In an experiment, when an all-mental practice condition is compared to an all-physical practice condition and a no practice condition, the typical results show that participants in the all-mental practice condition learn the skill
not as well as those in the all-physical practice condition but better than those in the no practice condition.
In an experiment that compares a combination mental-physical practice condition to an all-mental practice condition, an all-physical practice condition, and a no practice condition, the typical results show that participants in the combination mental-physical practice condition would learn the skill
as well as or better than those in the all-physical practice condition.
The Singer five-step general learning strategy involves mental practice by requiring learners to
think about the errors they made on the previous attempt.
In a physical rehabilitation setting, the experiment by Page and colleagues showed improvements in stroke patients' use of their affected limb when they engaged in mental practice
in addition to physical practice of the affected limb.
When skilled athletes were surveyed about their use of mental imagery, which general type(s) of imagery did they tend to use most often?
The neuromuscular explanation for the effectiveness of mental practice has been supported by research showing
EMG activity in muscles even though the limbs aren't moving.
The cognitive explanation for the mental practice effect is consistent with the role cognitive activity plays in
the first stage of learning.
Imagery ability has been shown to
have a positive correlation with mental practice effectiveness.
The Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) has been established to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess
visual and kinesthetic imagery abilities.
A term that can be used synonymously with mental practice is ________.
mental rehearsal [Also acceptable: cognitive rehearsal
Of the two types of imagery that have been categorized, the one that involves people experiencing the sensations that could be expected in an actual performance situation is called ________ imagery.
Two roles for mental practice related to motor skills are aiding in the acquisition of skills and in the ________ for performing skills.
In most experiments investigating mental practice and motor skill learning, mental practice alone typically results in learning that is ________ than no physical practice.
In the Singer five-step learning strategy, _______ of the five steps involve elements of mental practice.
Mental practice can be expected to be effective early in learning a motor skill because the early stage of learning relates well to the ________ explanation of the mental practice effect.
Imagery that involves feeling the movements of a skill is known as ________ imagery.
One reason for proposing a neuromuscular explanation for the benefit of mental practice is that ________ activity has been observed in limbs during mental practice.
EMG [Also acceptable: muscle]
(T/F)The terms mental practice and meditation can be used interchangeably.
(T/F)Research has shown that mental practice is effective as a performance preparation strategy but not as an aid to learning a new motor skill.
(T/F)When mental practice involves visual imagery, it can take the form of internal or external imagery.
(T/F)When mental practice trials and physical practice trials are included in practice sessions, skill learning can be as good as when the same number of trials involve only physical practice.
(T/F)The effectiveness of the Singer five-step general learning strategy for learning a motor skill has been demonstrated in experiments that have compared the retention and transfer effects of using the strategy and not using the strategy.
(T/F)Only the brain activity hypothesis is generally accepted as an explanation of the effectiveness of mental practice for motor skill learning and performance.
(T/F)Research has demonstrated that mental imagery ability is an individual-difference variable that influences the success of mental practice.
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