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BIO 1010 EXAM 5 STONE
Terms in this set (75)
non-specific first defense that we are born with
Examples of innate immunity
skin, mucous, wax, hair, cilia, enzymes in saliva and stomach acids
large white blood cells that engulf and digest pathogens
how do macrophages work?
put part of the pathogen on their surface to help other immune system cells, send signals to attracts other WBC's
small short-lived WBCs that also ingest pathogens
cell capable of engulfing and absorbing bacteria
two types of phagocytes
neutrophils and macrophages
phagocytes are used in inflammation and cause _____________
redness, swelling, pain, warmth
what causes an infection to swell, be warm, and red?
caused by leaking blood vessels which brings phagocytes to the infection to kill the bacteria
How can a fever help fight off disease?
increases the WBC activity and decreased the pathogen activity
specific and developed after birth
type of white blood cell in the immune system that help fight off infection
types of b-cells
plasma b-cells and memory b-cells
mass produce specific, free antibodies that flood the system, inactivating the pathogen or flagging it for macrophages
live a long time to remember the pathogen
Cells created in the thymus that produce substances that attack infected cells in the body.
send out cytokines
chemical signals that activate phagocytes, b-cells, t-cells, and others
kill infected host cells by punching holes in membrane
a lymphocyte that can suppress antibody production by other lymphoid cells.
what are vaccines?
contain harmless antigens that force the body to make antibodies against a pathogen
the immune system fights off a harmless protein from the environment
the immune system fights off body's own proteins
immune system doesn't function
slow growing bacterial infection usually found in the lungs
person has the bacteria but not sick
person has symptoms of bloody cough, weight loss fever; 50% death rate if not treated. airborne
TB strain MDR-TB
resistant to many antibiotics
TB strain XDR-TB
extensively resistant TB
TB strain TDR-TB
TOTALLY resistant TB
staph skin infection resistant to most antibiotics
gastric bacterial infection; vomiting, diarrhea; antibiotics dont work
the pathogen that causes AIDS
HIV is a _____________ which contains RNA
HIV contains an enzyme that coverts virus RNA to DNA called?
coverts virus RNA to DNA
how is HIV treated
a cocktail (ART therapy) that includes inhibitors to: reverse transcriptase, protease, and fusion of CD4/GP120
group of similar organisms that can interbreed and their offspring can breed
group or organisms of the same species that DO interbreed
a version of a gene that can create differences in individuals
a change in the frequency of a certain allele in a population over generations
how often an allele occurs
a population evolves and can no longer breed with other populations; a new species forms
survival of the fittest
those better suited for the environment will survive
the one with the most surviving offspring
members within a species have inheritable differences
the environment favors some differences (alleles) over others
survival to reproduce
only individuals who are better suited to the environment survive and reproduce; they pass their alleles on
movement of alleles from one population to another
change in allele frequencies in a population due to chance
chance events (no selection) reduce population; alleles are lost
the founder effect
individuals migrate to a new place to make a new population
humans intentionally breed a species for certain alleles
individuals select a mate based on inherited characteristics
reasons for a population split (speciation)
geographic isolation- separated by physical barriers
reproductive isolation- individuals can't mate
preserved remains of living things
determines the age of fossils/objects, uses constant decay of radioactive atoms into stable atoms
compares the shape of different species to find similarities called homologous structures
study of form
comparative sequence analysis
DNA sequences mutate over time; few sequence changes means closer relationship between 2 species
Branching diagrams that depict hypotheses about evolutionary relationships.
antibodies are ________
made by the body
antigens are _______
on the pathogen
chemicals that kill bacteria
why is the HIV virus able to specifically infect Helper T-cells?
Gp120 on the virus's surface binds to CD4 on the surface of the helper T-cells
which tool for studying evolution would use vestigial organs?
what other immune system protein besides fibrinogens may be included in plasma?
which cell type of the immune system is responsible for mass producing antibodies?
when a few individuals leave a population and start a new population in a new location
fevers ____________ the activity of macrophages and ___________ the activity of pathogens
what characteristic is common in rapidly evolving pathogens?
they have high mutation rates
vaccines force the body to make _________ b-cells
which tool is the most recent and most used to find evidence of relationships between species to create phylogenetic trees?
comparative sequence anlaysis
evolution cannot happen to ______
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