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JAMM 100 FINAL
Terms in this set (75)
Founder of TIME magazine in 1923.
opened the first advertising agency in Philadelphia in 1850.
"North Star" helped sway opinion on slavery, African American editor.
created the first electronic TV picture, from Rigby, Idaho.
First voice of broadcasting, inventor of radiotelephony.
"around the world in 72 days" & one of Pulitzer "Stunt Girls"
21 year old Russian Immigrant working in New York who picked up Titanic calls, national hero, enhanced commercial radio.
sent 1st radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901, nobel prize in 1906 for Physics, black box, wireless morse code.
Aimee Semple McPherson
famous evangelist, four squares temple, owned a broadcasting license & broadcasted her sermons.
pioneered the first radio for women, reported MLK's death for NBC.
early pioneer of 50's rock n' roll.
first black anchorman for CNN.
inventor of the world wide web.
wrote the history of the standard oil company. leading muckraker
journalist for the wall street journal, kidnapped and killed in 2002 in Al Qaeda.
famous reporter who doubted US winning the Vietnam War, reported JFK's death and Watergate Scandal, worked for CBS.
Founder of modern public relations, worked with the Rockefeller family.
"father of public relations," combined ideas of Gustave Le Bon & Wilfred Trotter on crowd psychology, named one of the 100 most influential Americans by LIFE.
first female star, comedian, directed and acted in "I Love Lucy" and used multiple camera angles.
Edward R. Murrow
War correspondent who helped establish radio as a news medium. Sent to London, covered build-up to WW2, Battle of Britain, hired "Murrow's Boys," confronted Senator McCarthy on his beliefs on communism, first journalist to ever confront a politician publicly, signature signoff was "Good night and good luck"
Founder of the New York Sun, the first penny press newspaper in the US.
Heart's "sob sisters" exposed hospital abuse, Mormon polygamy, city brothels.
Robert Sengstacke Abbott
Founder of Chicago Defender, 1905
Sarah Joseph Hale
editor of first female magazine
Co-founder, chairman and CEO of Apple Inc.
failed to create a successful tablet newspaper.
Mass media: the industries that mass communicate
Mass Communication: Society-wide communication spread using technology to a mixed audience, most of whom don't know each other
The four factors that influence newsmakers when they decide what is news:
- Universal News Drivers - stories that stick out to readers.
- Editorial Judgement - news gatekeepers decide what is important & what will get attention.
- Profit & Competition - knowing who you're competing against.
- The audience - knowing who your readers are and what their interests are.
The Public Relations innovations Ivy Lee introduced during what is considered his greatest success, the 1914 Ludlow Mine Massacre:
- photo opportunities
- fact sheet giving companies side
- third-party endorsement
What is news?
timely information up to some public interest that is shared & subject to a journalistic process of verification, in which an individual or organization is independent and held accountable for the works.
What is advertising?
purchase of space or time in media for a message intended to sell.
What is public relations?
coordinating communication between an organization and it's public, external and internal.
All three qualities that make news different:
VIA=process of verification and for which an independent individual is directly accountable.
V - Verification
I - Independent
A - Accountable
The inverted pyramid style:
most important information at the top, least important information at the bottom.
What is libel?
written lies, published or broadcast about a person, place
What is slander?
defamation by spoken word
DARPA and the role of communications:
DARPA = Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Connected 4 university mainframes
the six news neighborhoods & their simple definitions:
- news/journalism - to inform
- entertainment - to amuse
- advertising - to sell
- propaganda - to build mass support
- publicity - to promote
- raw information - to bypass
the role played by Sam Phillips & the Memphis Recording Service in the development of rock n' roll:
Sam Phillips introduced Elvis Presley to the public and other artists such as Johnny Cash & Jerry Lee Lewis.
The nature of Federal Communications Commission regulatory authority- What can it and what can it not regulate, including reasons the FCC cannot regulate satellite or cable television:
To regulate all interstate communications that is over-the-air broadcasting including radio, television, and wire in the US, cannot regulate satellite or cable tv because it's not over-the-air broadcasting & it is protected by the first amendment.
network of hardwire lines, wireless links, satellite uplinks & other technologies that connect computers worldwide.
interface that allows individuals to tap into the internet.
What is meant by the "engineering consent" and who coined the phrase:
the engineering consent means the art of manipulating people and it was written by Edward Bernays.
The economic principle of "the long tail:"
small number of products have high sales (short head). large number of products have limited appeal (long tail).
How itunes illustrates the "long tail" in action and how the "long tail" changes the way consumers interact with media:
more people will continue to buy products for a long time compared to the initial sales at the beginning (short head). iTunes sells media for a longer period rather than a place like a movie theatre.
What is meant by the phrase "public relations specializes in earned media:"
public relations uses the non-advertising portions of mass media y providing materials, staging events to be covered, and supplying spokesperson to be interviewed.
The first amendment (what is said) as well as what does not do:
"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances." no absolute prior restraint can be imposed.
The nature of statistically valid research and it's importance to public relations:
survey of small select sample of a population/group/demographics to determine thinking/behavior of total population or group. If PR goal is to change the what they think in the first place.
Key provisions of the radio act of 1912:
allowed people to choose their own frequencies, required people to have a license in order to be on air and identification to have a station.
Radio Act of 1927:
it belongs to the people & so does the airwaves. broadcasters work for the public and their interests. Convenience and neccesity
Communications Act of 1934:
gave the commission authority over telephone, television and radio.
The worldwide web top-level domain extensions that are restricted & those that are unrestricted:
.com - unrestricted
.net - unrestricted
.org - unrestricted
.gov - restricted
.edu - restricted
Edward Bernays greatest PR triumph, 1927 (torches of freedom), his light's golden jubilee, his work on behalf of Beechnut and promotion of a bacon and eggs breakfast, his work to make green a popular fashion color:
Easter Parade in New York, the goal was to show society it was okay for women to smoke.
The importance of "Rocket 88: in the history of rock music:
it was the first rock n' roll song
the four types of human communication & their definitions:
- intrapersonal - within yourself
- interpersonal - from one person to another
- group communication - to an audience of two or more people.
- mass communication - wide communication process, where technology is used to send a large message to a mixed audience, society-wide, using technology.
the communication era's:
- oral era - mouth to mouth - people only knew what the poets/authors wrote.
- written era - people were never able to read - manuscripts, usually a letter or very few copies.
- print era - books, multiple copies, viewable by many - the newspaper became a thing people read.
- digital era - cable, internet, cellphone, universal - the era we're in now, you can get information through anywhere pretty much.
the six universal news drivers:
- timeliness - when did it happen?
- impact - does it affect the readers?
- proximity - how close?
- prominence - important?
- singularity - different?
- conflict - interest?
the three dimensions of advertising & their definitions:
- economic - revenue base for media industries.
- psychological - creates, satisfies our needs as consumers.
- cultural - source of images, jingles, characters for popular culture.
the big 5 media companies and their importance to the media marketplace
1. 21st Century Fox / News Corp
2. Walt Disney Company
3. Comcast / NBC / Universal
4. CBS / Viacom
The dominant media at any given time/point in American history, i.e. print media in mid-20th, etc:
the six persuasive strategies employed in advertising:
- hidden - fear appeal - appeal to customers wanting to fit in.
- famous - person testimonial - celebrity endorsement.
- snob appeal - raise social status by use of product.
- Bandwagon effect - "join the parade"
- plain - folks pitch - unpretentious.
- irritation advertising - relies on repetition.
What is meant by the term "corporate arrogance" and how it leads to the development of modern public relations:
corporate leaders knew how to run a buisness, but did not understand the public.
-Pennsylvania Railroad covered up accidents
-Mines refused to let reporters on site.
-Reporters bribed false stories distributed.
any event solely to attract media coverage. defined by Daniel Boorstin.
The principles articulated in Ivy Lee's declaration of principles for PR practitioners:
"openly and honest supply accurate timely news to the press." the PR professional has a responsibility to the public that may transcend responsibility to the client.
How Dewey Phillips and Sam Phillips and other early rock music pioneers challenged the so-called "color barrier" in the mid-South of the late '40s and early '50s:
By playing "black music" to white audiences.
define media conglomerate:
large company with multiple divisions that produce related or unrelated products.
what is meant by the term, "vertically integrated:"
an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company.
What is meant by synergistic marketing:
promotion and sale of product through various subsidaries.
How Tylenol responded to the 1982 poisoning case and why it is a model for PR crisis management:
-immediate product recall
-halted all advertisement
-tylenol products were then reintroduced with triple seal tamper-resistant packaging
-2.5$ off coupon to motivate people to buy product
-over 2250 salespeople made presentations
-reacted quickly in a positive manner.
The positives and negatives of media mergers, acquisitions:
-positives: efficiency increases, able to reach a larger audience, companies became much more powerful, much more predictable.
-negatives: lack of competition, lack of diversity, and biased political view.
the nature of snopes.com and politifact:
snopes: website that fact checks urban legends.
politifact: an independent fact-checking journalism aimed at bringing the truth in politics.
sites like these try to bring the truth about urban legends in society and politics to the public's attention.
what is meant by the term "native advertising" and why consider it an ethical issue:
native advertising is a form of paid media where the ad experience follows the natural form and function of the user experience in which it is placed it's hard to distinguish news from advertising.
what is news literacy:
critical-thinking skills for analyzing and judging the reliability of news and information.
what is meant by the phrase "evaluate before you share.":
to make sure whatever you are sharing is true.
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