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AP Biology Cliff Notes: Ch. 1 Chemistry
Terms in this set (75)
a bond that forms between 2 atoms when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to the other
an atom with a positive or negative charge
bonds that form when electrons are shared
nonpolar covalent bond
bonds that form when electrons are shared EQUALLY
polar covalent bond
bonds that form when electrons are shared UNEQUALLY
a positively charge hydrogen atom in one covalently bonded molecule is attracted to a negatively charged area of another covalently bonded molecule
large organic molecules that may consist of hundreds or thousands of atoms
consist of a central carbon bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH) and a hydrogen atom. chain is a polypeptide, bonded by peptide bonds
chemical reactions that occur in biological systems
induced fit model
describes how enzymes work
nonprotein molecules that assist enzymes
the union of the cofactor and the enzyme
an enzyme becomes more receptive to addicitonal substrate molecules after one substrate molecule attaches to an active site
Polymer of a-glucose molecules. The principal energy storage molecule in plant cells
Polymer of a-glucose molecules, with branching polymer pattern. Major energy storage molecule in animal cells
Glucose + Fructose
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
chemical compound made out of sugar; forms tangled fibers in the cell walls of many plants and provides structure and support
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
long term energy storage molecules formed during condensation synthesis between 3 fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol
with fatty acids, make up the building blocks of lipids
In lipids a fatty acid with a single covalent bond between a pair of carbon atoms "saturated in hydrogens"
fatty acids with one double bond
In lipids a fatty acid with two or more double covalent bonds
A lips who'd one fatty acid has been replaced with a phosphate group that has "tails" that are non-polar and hydrophobic and "heads" that are polar and hydrophilic.
A molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region. Ex: phospholipids
keratin in hair, collagen in connective tissue, silk in spider webs
casein in milk, ovalbumin in egg whites, zein in corn seeds
In membrane cells that transport materials into and out of cells such as oxygen carrying hemoglobin in red blood cells
Characterized by a 4 linked carbon back bone such as cholesterol
antibodies that protect against foreign substances
regulate chemical reactions
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
Building blocks of protein
For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
Large molecules that are formed by joining smaller organic molecules together
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
the level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.
complex enzyme structure that consists of more than one polypeptide. and the active sites are formed at the juction of the two polypeptides
a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil
a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.
steroid molecule present in the plasma membranes of animal cells
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
region of enzyme that substrate binds to and forms pocket in which catalyst occurs
A specific receptor site on some part of an enzyme molecule remote from the active site.
A metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from simpler compounds.
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.
potential energy stored in chemical bonds of molecules.
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature is uniform throughout the system.
inhibitors that do not enter the active site; binds to enzyme and changes its shape and function
the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
Referring to a molecule that has been the recipient of a phosphate group.
binds to the enzyme and induces the enzyme's active form.
binds to the enzyme and induces the enzyme's inactive form.
an end product of a series of reactions acts as an allosteric inhibitor, shutting down one of the enzymes catalyzing the reaction series.
substance that mimics the substrate inhibits an enzyme by occupying the active site
an enzyme becomes more receptive to additional substrate molecules after one substrate molecule
attaches to an active site.
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