Terms in this set (68)
Thomas Nast achieved fame and influence as a
A member of the Social Gospel movement would probably
argue that Christians should work to reorganize the industrial system and bring about international peace
In 1890, Jacob Riis vividly portrayed life in an American urban slum in his work
How the Other Half Lives
As a result of the introduction of mass transit in cities
different social groups no longer lived close together.
Political machines spread and thrived in urban areas during the late 19c because
existing city government structures were so disorganized and chaotic
Jane Addams is most closely associated with
the settlement house movement
After 1890, increased immigration began to present a national problem because
unskilled laborers tended to concentrate in crowded urban slums
The social ethic which prevailed in late 19c America stressed that
economic success was available to anyone who worked hard
Those believing in the idea of the "Melting Pot" predicted that
a unique American culture would emerge from the blending of Old World cultures
In the late 1800s, the available welfare services were generally provided to the urban poor by
the bosses of the city machines
Europeans who came to the United States after 1880 have been described as "new" immigrants mainly because they
came generally from different countries than most earlier immigrants
The most dangerous aspect of urban life in the late 19c was
inadequate water and sewage systems
tall building with many floors supported by a lightweight steel frame
A low-cost apartment building that often has poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort and is designed to house as many families as possible
well organized political organization that controls election results by awarding jobs and other favors in exchange for votes
A person who controlled city governments, Provided city services, such as jobs, housing, food, heat to citizens in exchange for votes and power
Politicians who received money by fraud and dishonest practices. They worked in the political machine
an act that sets in motion some course of events--Large populations in cities triggered problems such as poor sanitation, disease, and contaminated water
Chicago-based architect whose high rise innovation allowed more people to crowd into limited urban space
This man was one of New York's most powerful party bosses who defended "honest graft", which is making money from inside information on public improvements.
Leader during the 1860s and 1870s. Tweed's corruptions led him to prison in 1874. head of Tammany Hall, NYC Democratic political machine; led Tweed Ring, a group of corrupt politicans, in defrauding the city
William "Boss" Tweed
Mass production of Steel and Steel Frames, Elevators, and durable, strong plate glass made it possible to build skyscrapers
a movement from one country or region to another. Farmers moved from the country and immigrants came and settled in Urban Areas--Chicago, New York, and other big cities
Effects of Migration to Urban Areas
Larger Population, More disease, growth of political machines
Pollution in Big Cities
Large overcrowded cities triggered problems with sanitation, sewage resulting disease, contaminated water
Workers Compensation/Disability Insurance
Government Programs to help those people hurt or disabled on the job. These programs did not exist during this period of history
Busses and Trains that help people get around in big cities and to deal with congestion
The Working Class of late 1800's
were forced to live in small apartment buildings with no running water, no sewage systems and were prone to frequent cholera outbreaks--had little hope of owning a home
Middle Class late 1800's
doctors, lawyers, engineers, managers, social workers, teachers--many moved away from large cities to escape crime and pollution--could afford homes in the suburbs
Upper Class of 1800's
Wealthy individuals who had elaborate mansions that employed lower class individuals as servants
immigration station in New York harbor that processed Eastern European immigrants. Approximately 17 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924.
port of entry into the US for many immigrants coming from Asia (usually a more difficult process than Ellis Island to enter the US)
the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) banned entry to all chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials.
(1907) agreement in which the Japanese promised not to issue passports to laborers seeking to come to the US, in return for no Japanese segregation in the US.
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
movement of southern, rural blacks to northern cities starting around 1915 and continuing through much of the twentieth century; blacks left the South as the cotton economy declined and Jim Crow persisted. Thousands came north for wartime jobs in large cities during World Wars I and II.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
assimilation into American culture
a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
Social Gospel Movement
an early reform program that preached salvation through service to the poor
Prominent social reformer who was responsible for creating the Hull House. She helped other women join the fight for reform, as well as influencing the creation of other settlement houses.
institutions that provided educational and social services to poor people
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
(1883): Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
african-american journalist who led the fight against lynching
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Said that a citizen could vote only if his grandfather had been able to vote. At the time, the grandfathers of black men in the South had been slaves with no right to vote. Another method for disenfranchising blacks.
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
makes voters read and write to vote, which many freedman could not do
exposed the unfair practices of big business. Wrote articles about the Standard Oil Company-these articles led to demands for more controls on trusts
A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality
United States labor leader who helped to found the Industrial Workers of the World
labor leader who supported unionization and labor reforms, opposed strikes and favored negotiations as a means to improve conditions for workers
A large open area beneath a ship's deck, often used to house traveling immigrants, the cheapest way to travel
Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
voluntary promotion of human welfare
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
stage entertainment made up of various acts, such as dancing, singing, comedy, and magic shows
type of music that blended African-American songs and European musical forms
United States composer who was the first creator of ragtime to write down his compositions (1868-1917)
a nineteenth-century literary movement that was an extension of realism and that claimed to portray life exactly as it was.
similar cultural patterns in a society as a result of the spread of transportation, communication, & advertising