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BIO 1010 Stone Exam 5
Terms in this set (97)
non specific first defense that we are born with
Barriers for Innate Immunity
skin ,mucous, hair, cilia, enzymes
specific and developed after birth
large white blood cells
engulf and digest pathogens
send signals to contract WBC's
Most abundant white blood cell
tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders
Dead neutrophils produce what?
Specialized proteins that are made to recognize pathogens, produced by B-cells
a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
How do antibodies work?
Coat the pathogen making it big enough to attract white blood cells
Attach & block from binding to cell surface
disable it from infecting host cells
What part of the antibody binds to the antigen?
What cells make antibodies?
plasma B cells
After a B cell attaches to a pathogen and divides, what two cells does it produce?
Plasma and Memory B cells
How does the body remember pathogens?
The memory B cells produced after an infection in your body, will recognize it when it returns.
they live a long time
A type of white blood cell that make antibodies to fight off infections(B and T cells)
Plasma B cells
mass produce specific, free antibodies
tag pathogens for macrophages
Helper T cells
activate phagocytes, B cells and T cells and others
send out cytokines and interleukins
Suppressor T cells
Inhibit function of T cells and B cells, especially after the infection is gone
Cytotoxic T cells
A type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cells
punctures holes in membrane and initiates self destruction
Memory B cells
Produced during a B cell response, but are not involved in antibody producing during the initial infection; are held in reserve for the rest of your life in case you encounter that pathogen again.
-redness swelling pain and warmth
-caused by leaking blood vessels
-bring phagocytes to the infection
increases white blood cell activity and decreases pathogen activity
How do vaccines work?
The vaccine inserts dead or weakened pathogen antigens so that the body creates antibodies to fight off the pathogen if ti is reintroduced to your body.
when the body fights off harmless proteins from the environment
body fight off its own proteins ex MS
neurological disease where macrophages attack the myelin sheath
Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, chrons disease, and diabetes are examples of what?
when the immune system does work correctly
HIV and SCIDs are examples of what?
A virus that attacks and destroys the human immune system.
What is the mutation rate for HIV?
HIGH, 1 -> 30
Where does HIV get its membrane envelope?
What is a retrovirus?
any of a group of RNA viruses that insert a DNA copy of their genome into the host cell in order to replicate ex. HIV
What cells does HIV infect?
Helper T cells
explain how helper t cells are targeted by HIV
GP120 on the head of HIV virus cells is an antigen that looks for the CD4 antibody found on HTC's
Why is HIV hard to cure?
1. it infects the cells responsible for killing it
2. its a retrovirus
3. it has a high mutation rate
How is HIV treated?
a cocktail (ART therapy)
What does the cocktail ART therapy include?
inhibitors t reverse transcriptase, protease, and fusion of CD4/GP120
Can HIV evolve to resist ART?
At what point does a patient get diagnosed with HIV?
helper T cell levels below 200
What are the diseases that are evolving resistance?
TB,MRSA/VRSA, CDIFF, HIV, strep, salmonella, E.Coli
gastric bacterial infection
staph skin infection resistant to most antibiotics
flu virus thats becoming incurable
How can you slow the evolution of pathogens?
taking the full dose of antibiotic/viral medication
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
a group of organisms of the same species that DO interbreed
a version of a gene that can create differences in an individual
a change in the frequency of a certain allele in a population over generations
how often an allele occurs
a population evolves changing so much they can no longer breed with other populations; a new species forms
Form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; occurs when individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve
Natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes
form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle
survival of the fittest
the one with the most surviving offspring
Key concepts of natural selection
survivor to reproduction
example of natural selection
2.alleles changing frequency
3.what selection is causing change
4. what phenotype is fittest
peppered moths on tree bark
members within a species have inheritable differences (alleles)
population produce more offspring than will survive
ex of natural selection
if an environment favors darker skin over lighter skin, the population will evolve to become darker in a process called selection
environment favors some differences over others
survival to reproduction
only individuals who are better suited to the environment survive and reproduce
humans intentionally breed a species for certain alleles
individuals select mate based on inherited characteristics
what does mutation do?
creates new alleles
How does a variety of alleles help a population?
by adapting to the changes in the environment using them ore dominant alleles
movement of alleles from one population to another; increases diversity
example of gene flow
Blue-eyed people from Sweden move to a small town in Mexico where people all have brown eyes. When they mate, some of their children now have blue eyes.
What are the leading causes of extinction?
lack of variety and changes in environment
chance change in allele frequencies in a population
What are the two kinds of genetic drifts?
bottleneck effect and founder effect
A change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population
the founder effect
change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
ex of founders effect
amish people moving away and breed amongst themselves decreasing frequency
what are the 6 types of evolutionary processes?
3. Genetic Drift
separated by physical barriers
the seperation of individuals that makes them unable to mate
A term that typically describes a species that no longer has any known living individuals.
What are the tools for studying speciation?
1 fossil record
2 radiometric dating
3 comparative morphology
4 comparative sequence analysis
5 eye witness
preserved remains of living things
simple fossils under more complex fossil in the ground
determines age of objects
uses carbon dating and other radioactive atom decay
-the shape of different species to find similarities
-compares developmental stages
the study of the shape of organisms
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
comparative sequence analysis
DNA sequences mutate over time
few sequence changes mean closer relationship between 2 species
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species.
Branching diagrams that depict hypotheses about evolutionary relationships.
Forks where ancestor splits into two or more descendants
a single branch in a phylogenetic tree
Why does evolution matter to us from a health perspective?
the evolution of pathogens is happening in our bodies on a daily basis, they are becoming incurable
What type of pathogen causes tuberculosis?
A bacterium called Mycobacterium
What are the symptoms of TB?
phlegm in lungs
When does TB become contagious?
anyone infected active/latent can transmit it airborne
Why does TB concern health officials?
it is developing drug resistance
extensively drug resistant TB
Totally drug resistant TB
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