Chapter 29 AP Euro Terms
Terms in this set (59)
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
(HT) , 1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
The thirty-eighth parallel
- Dividing line between South and North Korea.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
American plane shot down by Soviets
A wall built in 1961 dividing Soviet controlled East Berlin from the democratic West Berlin. It was destroyed when communism ended in 1990.
People's Republic of China
Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in 1949 following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang.
runs Cuba as a mean, benevolent dictator but benefits America so they let him rule, flees Cuba on New Year's eve due to rebellion
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries. (p. 839)
bishop of Krakow that led the constructing of the Ark church in defiance of the communist government's wishes.
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Strategic Defense Initiative
A high-technology missile-defense system. It called for orbiting battle satellites in space that could fire laser beams to vaporize intercontinental missile on liftoff
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
Doctrine of Nonviolence
MLK Jr. advocated this doctrine
a Muslim republic in southern Asia bordered by India to the north and west and east and the Bay of Bengal to the south
National Liberation Front
Radical nationalist movement in Algeria; launched sustained guerilla war against France in the 1950s; success of attacks led to independence of Algeria in 1958.
Organization Arme Secrete
a group of officers, looked as if they'd start a coup in paris
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
Communist-dominated Nationalist Movement. Ruled Vietnam when Japanese rule ended. Leader was Ho Chi Minh.
Aggressive Soviet leader whose failed gamble of putting missiles in Cuba cost him his job
a speech by Khrushchev that was meant to be to a closed group of communist party members that got leaked
Hungarian nationalists staged huge demonstrations demanding non-communist parties be legalized; turned into armed rebellion and spread throughout the country
Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand
Nguyen Van Thieu
He was a military commander and the president of South Vietnam. He was a corrupt as the leader of South Vietnam.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. Sakharov was an advocate of civil liberties and reforms in the Soviet Union.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
"Openness; called for increased transparency in government institutions and activities within the USSR; Mikhail Gorbachev. Usually paired with "Perestroika"
Mass protests in Czechoslovakia, led by playwright Vaclev Havel, that culminated in the fall of communism in that country in November 1989.
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
Yugoslav statesman who led the resistance to German occupation during World War II and established a communist state after the war (1892-1980)
President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and of Yugoslavia 1997 to 2000. A key figure in the ethnic conflicts in the Balkans in the 1900's.
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
International War Crimes Tribunal
• 1993: founded by the UN Security Council in response to the genocide of Kosovars by the Yugoslavs to bring those responsible to trial
region of Yugoslavia that had autonomy until Milosovic attempted to crush the Albanian group with ethnic cleansing; 1999 NATO used military strikes against Yugoslavia until the crisis came to an end in 1999
Name of the successor state to the Soviet Union, commonly known as Russia. Largest and most powerful remnant of the old Soviet empire
A republic of Russia that has experienced some of the worst violence because they wanted independence
(1978-1979) a revolution against the shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Shi'ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic.
The belief that a reformed or pure Islam must be established in the contemporary world.
Egyptian religious and nationalist movement founded by Hasan al-Banna in 1928; became an example for later fundamentalist movements in the Islamic world.
September 11, 2001
AI-Qaeda terrorists, living in the U.S., hijacked several commercial airliners and crashed them into the Pentagon and World Trade Center.
a network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
George W. Bush
43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
War on Terrorism
initiated by george w. bush after the september 11, 2001, attacks to weed out terrorist operatives throughout the world, using diplomacy, military means, improved homeland security, stricter banking laws, and other means
elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track.