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AP BIO CHAPTER 14 (ANIMAL REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT)
Terms in this set (120)
the production of eggs and sperm and the processes leading to fertilization
the sequence of events that transform a fertilized egg to a multicellular organism
primary sex characteristics
the structures directly involved in reproduction; includes the uterus and ovaries in females and the testes in males
secondary sex characteristics
includes body hair, distribution of muscle and fat, voice quality, and breasts in humans and deer antlers, lion manes, and peacock tails in nonhumans. used to indicate sexual maturity and sexual readiness to attract or locate mates, or are used by males to compete for females (visual displays and aggression)
components of the female reproductive system
over, oviduct/ fallopian tube, uterus, vagina
the organ where the ova (eggs) are produced; each female has two
oviduct (fallopian tube)
transfers eggs from the ovary to the uterus; each female has two
a fertilized ovum implants on the inside wall; development of the embryo occurs here until birth
inside wall of the uterus
an opening in the uterus that connects the uterus to the vagina
components of the male reproductive system
testis, ceminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferns, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, , bulbourethral glands, penis
consists of seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells; contained in the scrotum which hands outside the body. produce male sex hormones and sperm.
located in the testis; produce sperm
interstitial cells of the testis
produce male sex hormones (testosterone and other androgens)
the sac containing the testis. hangs outside the body and provides a temperature about 2°C below that of the body cavity, a condition necessary for the development of sperm
a coiled tube, one attached to each testis, is the site for final maturation and storage of the sperm
transfers sperm from one epididymis to the urethra
secrete mucus (liquid medium for the sperm), fructose (provides energy for the sperm), and prostaglandins (stimulate uterine contractions to help sperm move into the uterus) into the vas deferens during ejaculation
secretes a milky alkaline fluid into the urethra and serves to neutralize the acidity of urine that may still be in the urethra, as well as the acidity of the vagina
bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands)
secrete a small amount of fluid of unknown function into the urethra
urethra passes through it and serves to transport semen, the fluid containing sperm and secretions, into the vagina; also transports urine out of the body
compact packages of DNA specialized for the effective delivery of the male genome
structures of sperm
sperm head, midpiece, tail
contains the haploid nucleus with 23 chromosomes; acrosome is at the tip
located at the tip of the sperm head. it is a lysosome containing enzymes used to penetrate the egg.
where does the acrosome originate from?
golgi body vesicles that fuse to form a single lysosome
the first part of the flagellum that emerges from the sperm head. it consists of the typical 9+2 microtubule array that emerges from one member of a pair of centrioles. it is characterized by mitochondria that spiral around the flagellum and supply ATP for flagellar movement
the remainder of the flagellum that emanates from the midpiece. performs a whiplike motion alongside the midpiece to propel sperm
meiotic cell divisions that produce eggs in females (oogenesis) and sperm in males (spermatogenesis)
begins during embryonic development; consists of the meiotic cell divisions that produce eggs in females
meiotic cell divisions that produce sperm in males. begins at puberty within seminiferous tubules of the testes
fetal cells that divide by mitosis to produce primary oocytes during oogenesis
arise from oogonia during oogenesis. these begin meiosis but progress only through prophase I and then remain at this stage until puberty
T/F: primary oocytes progress only to prophase II and remain at this stage until puberty
F; they stop at prophase I
development of the primary oocyte during the menstrual cycle occurs within the ______, which protects and nourishes the developing oocyte
At the end of meiosis I in oogenesis, one daughter cell is the _______ ____________ containing most of the cytoplasm and the other is a ______ ________ with very little cytoplasm.
arises from meiosis I during oogenesis; this assures that adequate amounts of stored food, as well as mitochondria, ribosomes, and other cytoplasmic organelles, will be available for the developing embryo
arises from meiosis I of the primary oocyte during the menstrual cycle; may continue with meiosis II and divide into two, but they ultimately disintegrate
T/F: sperm contributes most of the cytoplasm at fertilization
F; sperm contributes very little. Most of the cytoplasm is contributed by the secondary oocyte.
marks the release of the secondary oocyte from the follicle
cells that divide by mitosis repeatedly to produce primary spermatocytes during spermatogenesis
arise from spermatogonia. these begin meiosis; meiosis I produces two secondary spermatocytes.
arise from meiosis I of primary spermatocytes; at the end of meiosis II, they become four spermatids
arise from meiosis II of secondary spermatocytes; get nourishment from sertoli cells and differentiate into mature sperm
located in the seminiferous tubules, these provide nourishment to maturing spermatids
T/F: sperm complete their development in the epididymis
T; they mature there and are stored there until needed
the human female reproductive cycle is characterized by the ______ cycle and the ________ cycle
the activities of the ovary and the uterus in the reproductive cycle are coordinated by positive and negative feedback responses involving _________ from the hypothalamus, ________ and __________ from the anterior pituitary, and _________ and ________ from the follicle and corpus luteum.
GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone)
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
leutenizing hormone (LH)
T/F: the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary initiate the reproductive cycle
steps of the female reproductive cycle
1. The hypothalamus monitors the levels of estrogen and progesterone in the blood; in a negative feedback fashion, low levels of these hormones stimulate the hypothalamus to secrete GnRH, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH.
2. FSH stimulates the development of the follicle and the oocyte.
3. FSH stimulates the secretion of estrogen from the follicle.
4. Positive feedback from the rising levels of estrogen stimulate the anterior pituitary (through GnRH) to produce a sudden surge of LH; this triggers ovulation.
5. After ovulation, the follicle develops into the corpus luteum, which continues to develop under the influence of LH and secretes estrogen and progesterone
6. estrogen and progesterone stimulate the development of the endometrium, which thickens in preparation for implantation
7. negative feedback from high levels of estrogen and progesterone cause the anterior pituitary to abate production of FSH and LH
8. in the absence of FSH and LH, the corpus luteum deteriorates; estrogen and progesterone production stops, which causes disintegration of the endometrium which results in menstruation
9. if implantation occurs, the implanted embryo secretes chorionic gonadotropin to sustain the corpus luteum, which in turn continues to produce estrogen and progesterone; later in the cycle, HCG is replaced by progesterone secreted by the placenta
What triggers ovulation int he menstrual cycle?
a sudden midcycle surge in leutenizing hormone (LH) caused by rising levels of estrogen, which stimulate the anterior pituitary.
What sustains the corpus luteum after implantation of the egg?
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), secreted by the implanted embryo; this is what they test in pregnancy tests
phases of the ovarian cycle
follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase
follicular phase of the ovarian cycle
the development of the egg and the secretion of estrogen from the follicle
ovulation phase of the ovarian cycle
the midcycle release of the egg
luteal phase of the ovarian cycle
the secretion of estrogen and progesterone form the corpus luteum after ovulation
T/F: the male reproductive cycle is regulated by the same hormones that regulate the female reproductive cycle
T: GnRH from the hypothalamus and FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary
In males, leutenizing hormone is also called __________
ICSH, interstitial cell stimulating hormone
In the male reproductive cycle, _________ stimulates the interstitial cells in the testes to produce ________; under the influence of these two hormones, ____________ promote the development of sperm.
what are the four stages in the growth and development of animals, in order?
gametogenesis, embryonic development, puberty, aging process
an embryo that resembles the infant form
occurs when the sperm penetrates the plasma membrane of the secondary oocyte. is accompanied by the following steps:
1. recognition: sperm secretes a protein that binds with receptor molecules on the vitelline layer (zona pellucida in humans) to ensure the fertilization occurs only between eggs and sperm of the same species
2. penetration: plasma membranes of the sperm and secondary oocyte fuse; sperm nucleus enters the oocyte
3. vitelline later forms a fertilization membrane which blocks entrance of additional sperm
4. sperm penetration triggers meiosis II in the oocyte, producing an ovum and polar body; the polar body is discharged through the plasma membrane
5. sperm and ovum nuclei fuse, forming a zygote nucleus consisting of 23 pairs of chromosomes; each replicates to consist of two identical chromatids
during fertilization, what ensures that fertilization only occurs between eggs and sperm of the same species?
in humans, the zona pellucida; in other mammals, the vitelline layer. sperm secretes a protein that binds with receptor molecules on this glycoprotein layer of the secondary oocyte
what blocks the entrance of additional sperm after fertilization?
the zona pellucida/ vitelline layer
In humans, sperm penetration of the egg triggers ______________ in the oocyte, producing an ovum and a polar body
consists of a series of rapid cell divisions without cell growth; as a result, each of the resulting blastomeres contains less cytoplasm than the original zygote.
cells that result from rapid cleavage divisions of the zygote which contain less cytoplasm than the original zygote
the egg has an upper animal pole and a lower vegetal pole; cells of the vegetal pole contain more yolk because it is denser than the surrounding cytoplasm, causing it to settle at the bottom of the egg
Cells formed at the ________ pole of the embryo contain more yolk than the __________ pole
polar and equatorial cleavages
early cleavages are polar, dividing the eggs into segments that stretch from pole to pole (like sections of an orange).
Other cleavages are parallel with the equator (perpendicular to polar cleavages)
Early cleavages of the blastomere are _________, dividing the egg into segments (like an orange)
radial and spiral cleavages of the blastomere occur in __________ and _________, respectively
deuterostomes: early cleavages are radial, forming cells at the animal and vegetal poles that are aligned together, the top cells directly above the bottom cells.
protostomes: cleavages are spiral, forming cells on top that are shifted with respect to those below them
a cleavage is ______________ if it produces blastomeres that, if separated, can individually complete normal development.
a cleavage is _________ if it produces blastomeres that cannot develop into a complete embryo if separated from other blastomeres; their developmental program is limited to the production of cells that contribute to only a part of the complete embryo
_________ cleavages in deuterostomes are usually ________, while ___________ cleavages of protostomes are usually _____________
a solid ball of cells that arises from successive cleavage divisions of blastomeres
arises from cell divisions of the morula, in which liquid fills the morula and pushes the cells out to form a circular cavity surrounded by a single layer of cells; the layer of cells is the blastula and the cavity is called the blastocoel
a circular cavity surrounding blastula, both of which arise from cell divisions of the morula
arises from invagination of cells of the blastula, forming a two-layered embryo with an opening from the outside into a center cavity.
has the following features:
three germ layers, archenteron, blastopore
formation of the gastrula from the blastula when cells invaginate, forming a two-layered embryo with an opening from the outside into a center cavity
at what stage of embryo development would you expect to fins three germ layers, the archenteron, and the blastopore?
what are the three features of the gastrula?
three germ layers, archenteron, blastopore
outside layer of the three cell layers of the gastrula. develops into the skin, brain, and nervous system
middle layer of the three layers of the gastrula. develops into skeletal and muscle tissue, the notochord, blood vessels, dermis, and connective tissues
inner layer of the three layers of the gastrula. develops into the interior linings of teh digestive and respiratory tube
a feature of the gastrula, it is the center cavity formed by gastrulation. it is completely surrounded by endoderm cells
a feature of the gastrula. it is the opening into the archenteron. it becomes the mouth in protostomes or the anus in deuterostomes.
in protostomes, the blastopore develops into the _________
in deuterostomes, the blastopore develops into the _________
animals that undergo extraembryonic membrane development; includes birds, reptiles, and humans
occurs in the amniotes (birds, reptiles, humans).
membranes outside of the embryo develop into as follows:
CHORION: in birds and reptiles, it acts as a membrane for gas exchange. In humans, it implants into the endometrial tissue and later forms the placenta.
ALLANTOIS: forms a layer below the chorion. In birds and reptiles, it stores waste products (uric acid); later, it fuses with the chorion to act as a membrane for gas exchange. In humans, it transports waste products to the placenta and eventually develops into the umbilical cord.
AMNION: encloses the amniotic cavity
YOLK SAC: in birds and reptiles, it digests the enclosed yolk so that blood vessels can transfer the nutrients to the developing embryo. In humans, the yolk sac is empty and nutrition is obtained through the placenta
In birds and reptiles, the _________ acts as a membrane for gas exchange. In humans, it implants into the endometrial tissue and later forms the ___________
In birds and reptiles, the _____________ stores waste products in the form of uric acid and later fuses with the chorion. In humans, it transports waste products to the placenta and eventually develops into the __________
encloses the amniotic cavity, a fluid-filled cavity that cushions the developing embryo much like how the coelom cushions internal organs in coelomate animals
In birds and reptiles, the _________ membrane digests the enclosed yolk. In placental mammals, it is empty.
as cells divide after gastrulation, they become different from one another, taking on characteristics of specific tissues and organs
results in the formation of the notochord and the neural tube
arises from organogenesis in chordates.
Cells along the dorsal surface of the mesoderm germ layer form it; it is a stiff rod that provides support in lower chordates. The vertebrae of higher chordates are formed from nearby mesodermal cells.
arises from organogenesis of the ectoderm in chordates.
it forms when the neural plate above the notochord indents, forming the neural groove, which then rolls up into a cylinder to form the neural tube. It develops into the central nervous system.
cells that roll off the top of the developing neural tube in chordates; these form tissues such as teeth, bones, and muscles of the skull, pigment cells of the skin, as well as nerve and other tissues
In chordates, the ______________ of the __________ layer arises into teeth, bones, and muscles of the skull
frog deviations from embryonic development
formation of the gray crescent, dorsal lip, and yolk plug
a feature of frog fertilization that is not found in other animals.
When the sperm penetrates a frog egg, a reorganization of the cytoplasm results in the appearance of this region; each individual cell formed in development can only develop into a normal frog if it contains a portion of this
T/F: as long as an individual cell of the developing frog embryo contains a portion of the gray crescent, it can develop into a normal frog even if it is separated from the other cells.
a feature of frog gastrulation that is not present in other animals.
Cells migrate to the top edge (dorsal lip) of the blastopore, forming from the same region which was earlier occupied by the gray crescent. The bottom and sides are called the ventral lip and lateral lip.
the yolk material is much more extensive in frogs than in the sea urchin. Cells from the vegetal pole rich in yolk material form this structure near the dorsal lip
bird deviations from embryonic development
blastodisc, primitive streak
the yolk of the bird egg is very large and most of it is not involved in cleavages. Instead, cleavages occur in this blastula that consists of a flattened, disk-shaped region that sits on top of the yolk
a variation of embryonic development in birds.
When gastrulation begins, invagination occurs along this line (rather than a circle); as cells migrate into it, the crevice formed becomes an elongated blastopore, rather than a circular blastopore.
Mammal variations in embryonic development
blastocyst, trophoblast, embryonic disc
the two-part blastula stage of mammal embryonic development: the trophoblast and the embryonic disc
the outer ring of cells of the blastocyst in mammal embryonic development. It accomplishes implantation by embedding into the endometrium of the uterus. It also produces HCG to maintain progesterone production of the corpus luteum, and later forms the chorion which will later form the placenta
the inner mass of cells of the blastocyst in mammal embryonic development; it arises from the inner cell mass, which clusters at one pole and flattens into this structure. It is analogous to the blastodisc of birds and reptiles. A primitive streak develops, gastrulation follows, and development of the embryo and extraembryonic membranes (except the chorion) ensues.
influence of the egg cytoplasm
cytoplasmic material is distributed unequally in the egg and subsequent daughter cells. the gray crescent in frogs and the yolk in bird eggs are examples. Nonuniform distribution of cytoplasm results in embryonic axes like the animal and vegetal poles. When cleavages divide the egg, the quality of cytoplasmic substances will vary among daughter cells; substances unique to certain daughter cells may influence their subsequent development.
the influence of one cell or group of cells over neighboring cells. Cells that exert this influence are called organizers. Cells act as organizers by secreting chemicals that diffuse among neighboring cells, influencing their development. The dorsal lip of the blastopore induced the development of the notochord in nearby cells. In particular, a second dorsal lip was grafted into an embryo and two notochords developed, therefore the dorsal lip functioned as an organizer
contribute to the control of development by turning on and off other genes that code for substances that directly affect development. Mutants of these genes in fruit flies are responsible for producing body parts in the wrong places
a unique DNA segment, 180 nt long, that has been found in most homeotic genes in numerous species. It identifies a particular class of genes that control development
the fate of a cell is said to be ________ if its final form cannot be changed by grafting it into a new position in the embryo
T/F: cells are more likely to be determined earlier in the developmental sequence than later.
F. Because cytoplasmic influences can be narrowed by each successive cell division, cells are more likely to be determined later in the developmental sequence than earlier.
a map formed by tracing the fates of cells during development
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