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Biology Final Exam
Terms in this set (78)
What is the study of interactions among all organisms and their physical environment?
What is linked with ecology?
What encompasses several levels of study: organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
What is the place where organism lives?
What are all organisms belonging to same species within an area?
What consists of all populations of multiple species interacting in an area?
What is it called when all organisms live in a place, together with their physical environment?
What encompasses zones of Earth's soil, water, and air where living organisms are found?
What is the statistical study of a population (such as density, distribution, rate of growth)?
What is the number of individuals per unit area?
What is the pattern of dispersal of individuals across an area?
What is the population that grows when the number of births exceeds the number of deaths?
What are the nonliving (abiotic) and living (biotic) components of an environment that support living organisms?
What resource deals with sunlight, heat, humidity, wind, soil?
What resource deals with animals, plants, bacteria?
What is the maximum number of individuals of a given species the community can support?
What nears carrying capacity, more likely resources will become scarce? (competition, predation)
Closer population size
What (population grows at constant rate) can cause carrying capacity to rise and crash (St. Paul Island)?
How many people live on earth?
Presently 7.4 billion
What puts extreme pressure on each country's social organization, Earth's resources, and biosphere?
What leads to pollution and may cause extinction of wildlife that will significantly impact entire planet?
In 1926, what Yellowstone National Park animal was eliminated and produced ecological effects for next 70 years, so they were reintroduced in 1955?
What occurs when members of different species use same resource that is in limited supply (light, space, nutrients)?
What occurs when one living organisms (predator) feeds on another (prey)?
What are mechanisms that prevent the possibility of being eaten by predator?
Who evolved many ways to avoid predation, such as heightened senses, speed, protective armor, color, chemical defenses, etc.?
What is the ability to blend into background (poisonous frogs, snakes, flounders, moths, lantern fly)?
What occurs when one species resembles another (Bumblebees and yellow jackets, dragonfly and damselfly?
What is it called when an organism (parasite) gets nourishment from another (host)? (fleas, leeches, tapeworms)
What is it called when species living close together - but one species causes harm to another but tends to not kill it (can also be considered predation)?
What is the symbiotic relationship between 2 species, where one benefits and other neither benefits nor harmed? (Clownfish, sea anemone, remoras, sharks)
What is the symbiotic relationship where both members benefit? (bacteria in gut provides vitamins K/B for us, get good and process waste. plants and pollinators)
What is it called when populations interact with each other and environment; abiotic and biotic components?
Dynamics of an ecosystem
What are the two (2) dynamics of an ecosystem?
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
What requires only inorganic nutrients and outside energy source to produce organic nutrients for their own use?
What are autotrophs that produce food (plants, algae)?
What needs source of organic nutrients as they acquire food from different source?
What are the four (4) groups of Heterotrophs?
Herbivores, Carnivores, Omnivores, Detritivores
What type of Heterotroph grazes on plants, algae (insects, deer, fish)?
What type of Heterotroph feeds on animals (lion-antelope)?
What type of Heterotroph feeds on both plants and animals? (Chickens, humans)
What type of Heterotroph feeds on detritus which is decomposing matter (bacteria, fungi); also called decomposers?
Energy flows through ecosystem in a what kind of stream or flow from producers to consumers?
What is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating/being eaten?
What is it called that matter moves through cycles; it gets transformed, it is never created or destroyed, just changed?
Biogeochemical cycles include what four (4) things?
Water cycle, carbon cycle, phosphorus cycle, nitrogen cycle?
What is it called when water from oceans and lakes evaporates, condenses to form clouds?
What is it called when water falls to surface as precipitation, runoff leads through rivers, lakes, oceans, and seeps into ground?
What is it called when groundwater is taken up in plant roots, transpiration, released into atmosphere?
What is the key ingredient of living tissue and ecosystems?
What is it called when CO2 is taken up by producers (plants) during photosynthesis, and released by cellular respiration?
What is it called when organisms die, decomposers break down bodies, releasing carbon to environment?
What is the burning of forests, fossil fuels that release CO2?
What is it called when carbon dissolves in rainwater, oceans and returns to atmosphere?
What makes up 78% of earth's atmosphere?
What is many forms; makes amino acids to form proteins, nucleic acids to make DNA, RNA?
What is it called when consumers eat producers and reuse nitrogen to make compounds?
What is it called when N2 converted to usable forms by lightning (atmospheric nitrogen fixation)?
What is it called when bacteria converts N2 into ammonia (nitrogen fixation)?
What is it called when decomposers release nitrogen through waste and humans add nitrogen through fertilizer?
What is not found in significant quantities in atmosphere, but is from rock, soil minerals, in oceans as sediment?
What is mined and turned into fertilizer, excess washed into rivers, streams, oceans?
What is worn down by rocks, and phosphate is released?
What is taken up by producers, reduced by consumers, released by excretion and decomposing matter?
Who was Charles Darwin and why is he so important?
He wrote "The Origin of Species" and studied evolution, how animals/plants evolve over time. His favorite thing to study was finches
What is an evolutionally change caused by environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce; results in adaptation to environment
Any heritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in its environment is called?
What is the term that all living things are related. They have descended from similar ancestors?
What is it called when all living organisms use same basic biochemical molecules?
What is it called when a structure that is similar in different types of organisms because these organisms descended from a common ancestor?
What is it called when Tiktaalik and Ambulocetus, Basilosaurus provide evidence that evolution can involve life forms in transition from one type to another and over long periods of time?
What is it called when Hox genes orchestrate the development of the body in all animals?
Developmental Biology evidence
What is the process by which organisms are related by common descent; all organisms can trace their ancestry to the first cells?
What is one of the basic mechanisms of evolution and is the process where organisms with favorable traits are more likely to reproduce and pass on these traits to the next generation?
What is the intentional breeding of certain traits, or combination of traits, over others to produce a desirable outcome?
What is the study of where organisms live now and where they and their ancestors lived in that past?
What were the islands off the coast of South America named that Charles Darwin found such great diversity of animals?
What type of animal did Darwin make on of his most famous observations about in the Galapagos Islands?
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