Central Dogma and Cells (EOC Night)
Terms in this set (90)
The 4 nucleotides that make up DNA
THYMINE, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine
The 4 nucleotides that make up RNA
URACIL, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine
A sequence of three base that translate into amino acid
The correct order of making a protein
DNA transcribed to RNA and then RNA translated to proteins.
Compare DNA vs RNA
RNA: Single stranded, ribose sugars, Uracil instead Thymine
DNA: Double stranded, deoxyribose sugars, Thymine instead of Uracil
The enzyme in DNA replication aids in unzipping or unwinding the DNA strand so that they are now two separate pieces.
The enzyme in DNA replication that lays down PRIMER as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
DNA POLYMERASE The enzyme in DNA replication is responsible for replicating the new strand of DNA to each of the parent strands that were separated by Helicase
RibosomesThe sites in a cell in which protein synthesis takes place
The function of mRNA
carries the genetic information copied from DNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
The function of tRNA
Transports amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosome for translation.
The UNIVERSAL GENETIC CODE means that nearly all organism's...
RNA makes proteins in the same way.
The definition of semi-conservative DNA
One molecule of DNA with two original strands and one molecule of DNA with two new strands.
The order of the 3 enzymes used in DNA replication
Helicase, Primase, DNA polymerase, Ligase
Image of tRNA (transfer RNA)
Proteins are made up of this
DNA is made up of this monomer
DNA _______ ______ the nucleus
mRNA _______ ______ the nucleus
Adenine pairs with this
Thymine or Uracil
Guanine pairs with this
The Universal Genetic Code codes for amino acids using ________.
The _____ codes for amino acids using mRNA codons.
Universal Genetic Code
You CANNOT use _____ or ______ on the universal genetic code.
cell (plasma) membrane function
a thin, flexible barrier around a cell, that controls what enters and leaves the cell
what is this pointing to?
Synthesizes/make proteins through instructions given by DNA
this organelle structure contains DNA
rough endoplasmic recticulum
the organelle structure that synthesis/making of proteins, has ribosomes attached to it
smooth endoplasmic recticulum
what is the organelle structure that does not contain ribosomes on its surface and synthesizes/make membrane lipds
the organelle that modifies, packages, and transports proteins out of the cell. (like a mail man)
what structure is shown in the picture
organelle makes energy
this organelle found ONLY IN PLANT cells where photosynthesis occurs
what structure is shown in the picture
small, spherical organelles that contain the cell's digestive enzymes
large central vacuole
What structure is the arrow pointing to? HINT : it is only found in plants
plant cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
central vacuole function
cell wall function
a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell ONLY FOUND IN PLANT CELLS
structures only found in plant cells
cell wall, chloroplast, central vacuole
Prokaryotic Cells contain __________ bound organelles
Eukaryotic Cells contain __________ bound organelles
cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA
Organelles found in ALL types of cells
To combine / to make
What type of cell has NO NUCLEUS
stiffness/lack of flexibility
made to do one thing very well
smooth change of something between two points
very close to the truth or true number
Able to be passed or soaked through
features/ qualities/ traits
normal, healthy, balanced operation
moved products or people from one place to another
movement of water across a membrane
A property of a plasma membrane that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
a solution that causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis
a solution that causes a cell to swell because of osmosis
a solution that causes no change in cell size
to make easier; to assist
simple diffusion (passive transport)
Passive movement from high to low concentration
facilitated diffusion (passive transport)
Passive movement from high to low concentration using a transport protein
membrane proteins that help move substances across a cell membrane
active transport uses ________
passive transport uses _______
Movement from low to high concentration using a transport protein
light microscop is used to look at organisms that are_____.
prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic plant cells
The only cells that have a cell wall are___.
facilitated diffusion, simple diffusion, osmosis
Types of passive transport are _____.
endocytosis and exocytosis
Types of active transport are ___.
The components of the CELL THEROY are ___?
1. all cell come from pre-existing cells
2. cells are the basic structure
3. all living things are made of cells
Yellow structure in the image is an example of
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
The type of microscope to look at 3D images?
The cell membrane consist of a polar hydrophilic ______ and a nonpolar hydrophobic ______
The cell membrane consists of a nonpolar hydrophobic ______ and a polar hydrophilic ______
energy from the sun