AP Hobby final
Terms in this set (256)
the consistencies of one's characteristics are called
how do personality disorders differ from the personality characteristics of typical people?
they lead to more maladaptive, distressful, and inflexible behaviors
DSM-5, like its predecessor, DSM-IV-TR, identifies 10 personality disorders utilizing a
one reason that the personality disorders are difficult to treat is that the afflicted individuals
are frequently unaware that they have a problem
what is NOT the name used for a cluster of personality disorders?
the categorical approach to personality disorders assumes that
problematic personality traits are either present or absent
if you believe that personality disorders are BEST understood as a matter of degree in difference from typical personality rather than as a specific diagnosis, you agree with:
the dimensional approach
an individual has just received a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder. that individual is MOST likely to have a parent or sibling who has
The category of "odd" personality disorders includes the traits of:
extreme suspiciousness, social withdrawal, and cognitive and perceptual peculiarities
"it is clear that very demanding parents caused this person to develop paranoid personality disorder"
this statement MOST likely would be made by someone from which theoretical perspective?
A person experiencing paranoid personality disorder frequently says things like "You've got to get them before they get you," and "People have been sinners since the Garden of Eden." If these sayings reflect maladaptive assumptions the person has about people in general, the theorist who would be LEAST surprised would have which theoretical position?
One similarity of those experiencing paranoid personality disorder and those experiencing schizoid personality disorder is that they tend:
not to have close ties to others
wes has always been a loner. he has never much cared for being with other people and does not form relationships easily. he appears to be without emotion. wes may be exhibiting
schizoid personality disorder
the parents of those with schizoid personality disorders are MOST likely to have been
an individual diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder reports having a great deal of difficulty figuring out how others feel and as a child had difficulty developing adequate language skills. these findings would make the MOST sense to a theorist with which background?
There is a new game called "Moods" where one acts out the mood listed on a card. Being encouraged to play this game is most like the treatment _____ might use for those with schizoid disorders.
A belief that the news anchor on CNN is giving one important messages about one's behavior reflects:
ideas of reference
schizotypal personality disorders differ from other "odd" personality disorders in that they are related to schizophrenia and
The disorder that appears to be MOST closely related to the schizotypal personality disorder is:
A client has enlarged brain ventricles and a measurable loss of gray matter. These symptoms are:
biological, and the most likely diagnosis is schizotypal personality disorder
As part of their therapy, clients learn to evaluate their unusual thoughts, track the accuracy of "magical" predictions, and reconnect with the world and with their limitations. The diagnoses of these clients would MOST likely be in which broad category of personality disorder?
what category of personality disorder contains the disorders MOST commonly diagnosed?
A friend of yours says, "A 15-year-old high school student accused of shooting several classmates received a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder." Your accurate reply would be:
no, the student is too young for that diagnosis
Ben set up an elaborate scheme to mine gold in the Rockies. He had a large town meeting and made a presentation of his stock. The shares were only $5 each, and everyone could afford them. He showed pictures of the mine and explained how the company expected to gross $100 million each month. As it turns out, he was a terrific con artist who had made several "successful" proposals such as this in towns across America in the last couple of years. He is MOST likely suffering from:
antisocial personality disorder
Sarah respects none of society's boundaries and is insensitive to other people, frequently violating their rights. She does not consider the consequences of her actions. She MOST probably experiences:
antisocial personality disorder
If you wanted to write a book about a fictional character who is a "typical" example of antisocial personality disorder, you might have the character exhibit all of the following EXCEPT:
-periods of very high anxiety
-persistent violation of others' rights
lack of conscience after committing crimes
periods of very high anxiety
the two childhood disorders that have been related to later antisocial personality disorder are
conduct disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
The fact that children may learn antisocial behavior by modeling parental conflict and aggressiveness provides support for:
giving in to a child's refusal to comply with a parental request may inadvertently reinforce stubborn and defiant behavior, setting the scene for the development of antisocial personality disorder. this is most like a _____ view.
Assume a study of prison inmates diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder shows that they generally experience less anxiety than other people when they lie or "con" others. This outcome would most strongly support which theoretical position?
what statement BEST represents current knowledge about mass murderers?
we really don't know what causes mass murderers to act or how to treat them
what is MOST characteristic of mass murderers?
feelings of persecution and desire for revenge
"there's nothing out there for me. i can't stand other people, and i can't stand myself, either. i'm just really mad right now." such a statement would most likely be made by someone with what personality disorder?
Lisa felt like she was on an emotional roller coaster. She felt angry and empty. Lisa's feelings are MOST similar to those of someone with which personality disorder?
transported to the hospital after a suicide attempt, a man is later admitted to the hospital's psychiatric wing. his history showed other self-destructive behaviors and recklessness. MOST likely, if the man is diagnosed with a personality disorder, it will be
a therapist treating a client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder came up with the following analysis: the parents probably did not want children in the first place; the child just was not accepted; the child developed low self-esteem, dependency, and an inability to cope with separation. the therapist's theoretical orientation is probably
object relations theory
if an individual has damage to the prefrontal cortex, which symptom would MOST likely be observed?
deficits in planning, self-control, and decision making
Which have sociocultural theorists suggested as a cause for the emergence of borderline personality disorder?
- rapid social change
-traditional family structures
-clinging and dependent parents
-nontraditional family structures
rapid social change
The inability to accurately interpret one's internal biological emotional or physiological states is characteristic of both:
borderline personality disorder and eating disorders
What aspect of dialectical behavior therapy relates to psychodynamic theory?
the emphasis on the patient-therapist relationship
when dialectical behavior therapy is used with patients with borderline personality disorder, those patients, compared to patients receiving other forms of therapy, make
far fewer suicide attempts and are hospitalized less often
a patient receiving dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder experiences an emotion that he or she realizes is inappropriate. immediately after, the patient acts in a very, different, appropriate way. this DBT procedure is called
A therapist states, "I seldom use drugs when I treat clients with borderline personality disorder." The therapist MOST likely says this because:
the risk of suicide increases because using drugs may lead to overdose
"beatlemania" gripped the united states in the 1960s when the british rock group The Beatles performed; adoring fans screamed, sometimes fainted, and shouted exaggerated, emotional praise at the group. these behaviors MOST closely resemble the characteristics of
histrionic personality disorder
when the seat belt light in didi's car stays on for a few extra seconds, she bursts into tears. she always craves attention and reacts to even the smallest event with an elaborate show of emotion. she probably could receive a diagnosis of
histrionic personality disorder
"the problem is that they assume they can't take care of themselves, so they think others have to meet their needs. this pattern of thinking is not very helpful in trying to deal with histrionic personality disorder." a psychologist from which perspective would agree MOST strongly with this quote?
"i am the greatest!" a famous boxer declared loudly and often. had he in fact acted throughout his adult life as though he were the greatest, the most appropriate diagnosis would be
narcissistic personality disorder
Ty is fairly handsome, but not as handsome as he thinks he is. He doesn't care about anyone but himself and is sure that everyone around him feels the same way. He is MOST likely experiencing:
narcissistic personality disorder
behavioral and cognitive theorists propose that people who develop narcissistic personality disorder may have been treated
too positively in early life
assume you have to give an in-class presentation about narcissistic personality disorder. what is an accurate statement about treatment for this disorder?
no form of therapy is clearly better than the others
Like those with paranoid personality disorder, those with avoidant personality disorder usually:
are very sensitive to criticism and avoid close relationships
avoidant personality disorder seems MOST closely related to
according to psychodynamic theorists, an important factor in the development of avoidant personality disorder is
early experiences of shame
group therapy is particularly useful in the treatment of avoidant personality disorder, mainly because group therapy
provides practice in social interactions
a person who has an excessive need to be taken care of and is clingy is MOST likely to qualify for a diagnosis of
dependent personality disorder
a high school student asks a guidance counselor, parents, and friends for suggestions before deciding on a college to attend and on an academic major. this student's behavior is
normal for those in high school
A child who is severely criticized for acting independently, and who is praised for doing exactly what parents say to do, later develops dependent personality disorder. The therapist who would be LEAST surprised by this outcome would have which theoretical orientation?
"group therapy is a good option for those with dependent personality disorder; they'll be able to observe others' coping skills and model them." this statement would MOST likely be made by a therapist having which theoretical perspective?
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is MOST common among
men with jobs
psychodynamic theorists explain obsessive-compulsive personality disorder as a fixation at the
With the help of a therapist, a client with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder has experienced a dramatic decrease in both dichotomous thinking and worrying. The client's behavior is:
uncommon; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder do not seek help, and this person is most likely receiving cognitive therapy
some researchers note that the majority of those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder are female and that many of these women experienced emotional trauma, victimization, violence, and various forms of abuse as children. as a result, these researchers view the disorder as a special form of
post-traumatic stress disorder
according to the DSM-5, a pattern diagnosed as a personality disorder must deviate substantially from the norms and expectations of the individual's culture. as a result:
little multicultural research has been conducted
research has found that borderline personality disorder is more common among
what is NOT a problem in the use of the DSM-5 to diagnose personality disorders?
the criteria are so restrictive that several categories rarely, if ever, are used
"let's try to figure out where clients fall on several key personality traits, rather than using a dichotomous classification system." someone saying this would MOST likely favor which approach to classifying personality disorders?
a dimensional approach
If instruments such as the "Big Five" are used to describe personality, rather than relying on DSM-5, then diagnoses of psychological disorder would become:
less categorical and more a matter of degree
although lying, even compulsive lying, is not considered a psychological disorder, it is sometimes characteristic of people with
narcissistic personality disorder
the 5 traits to be included in future revisions of the DSM-5 that utilize a dimensional approach in diagnosing personality disorders are
negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, psychoticism
A large survey of parents and their children shows that parents:
generally underestimate how worried their children are
childhood disorders for which there are no similar adult disorders are called
for which anxiety disorder would you expect the childhood pattern to be MOST similar to the adult pattern?
Behavioral and somatic symptoms, such as clinginess, sleep difficulties, and stomach pain, rather than cognitive symptoms are MORE characteristic of anxiety disorders:
in children rather than in adults
a similarity among children with separation anxiety and those with school refusal is that they both fear going to school and often stay home. the difference in the symptoms of these diagnoses is that
school refusal often involves fear of others at school, academic fears, and fears of objects at school
hormonal changes, life demands, and body dissatisfaction are all reasons to explain why
postpubertal girls have higher rates of depression than postpubertal boys
Results from TADS (Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study) BEST support what conclusion?
treatment that works for one category of people may not be effective for another category of people
childhood patterns of behavior that are diagnosed as bipolar disorder differ from adult patterns in that
children display rage and aggression rather than mania
A child is openly hostile toward his parents. He argues with them constantly and will not do anything they say. They cannot control him. The diagnosis he is MOST likely to receive is:
oppositional defiant disorder
boys and girls have about the same percentage chance of being diagnosed with
oppositional defiant disorder if they are postpubertal
A child is extremely aggressive. She is always fighting with her peers and is frequently very cruel to them. She never tells the truth. Her MOST likely diagnosis is:
a child sneaks out of the home every now and then, and goes through the neighborhood breaking lawn decorations and scratching car paint. these behaviors most closely fit what pattern of conduct disorder?
at a parent-teacher conference, a child's parents are astounded to learn that their son has been showing up late for school, despite leaving home with more than enough time to get to school. this behavior MOST closely fits what pattern of conduct disorder?
Carl is a terrible bully. He is very aggressive and repeatedly takes advantage of others. he will say anything to get his way or to try to stay out of trouble. recently he was arrested for vandalism and ended up getting probation. he will MOST likely be labeled as displaying
imagine that you see a vide on youtube designed to encourage young people who are gay and being bullied. it is probably part of a program called
It Gets Better
an intervention in which parents and their children who have diagnosed with conduct disorder do behavior therapy targeting and rewarding desired behavior is called
parent management training
what is NOT a goal of parent-child interaction therapy?
encouraging parents to act consistently with their child
"will that program really help? i keep hearing bad things about how kids act once they leave." based on research, the person who said this would be accurate if she or he were expressing reservations about
a juvenile training center
what is NOT an effective treatment for conduct disorder?
juvenile training centers
a preadolescent child who has not received a clinical diagnosis participates in a program designed to stop the development of an antisocial pattern of behavior. MOST likely, that program is
elimination disorders are diagnosed when what criteria have been met?
a child has reached an age at which he or she is expected to control bodily functions
A child awakens suddenly to the sound of a bell, and heads for the bathroom. MOST likely the child is receiving:
behavioral therapy for enuresis
A child is awakened during the night, uses the toilet, and receives a sticker and praise from a parent. Later in the week, accumulated stickers may be turned in for a highly desired toy. This child is undergoing:
dry-bed training for enuresis
from what pair of disorders is a child MOST likely to recover by adulthood?
enuresis and encopresis
you read a case study about a 10-year-old girl from a poor background who was sexually abused. this case is
fairly common; girls, regardless of their socioeconomic group, are the most common victims of sexual abuse
the MOST common and successful treatments for encopresis are
behavioral and medical treatments
A child's distracting behaviors occur only in a school setting, and include failure to follow instructions and finish work, answering questions before they have been completed, and a lot of seat squirming and fidgeting. Could ADHD be a diagnosis of this child?
no, the child's symptoms occur in only one setting
what is the BEST answer to give to parents of a child recently diagnosed with ADHD in response to their questions about what caused it?
"our best guess is that ADHD results from an interaction of several factors."
The drug Ritalin is classified as a(n):
The latest research on the use of Ritalin to treat ADHD suggests that
research on its effectiveness and safety has been done almost exclusively on white american children
the two MOST common treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have been
behavioral and drug therapies
the LEAST likely contributor to the differences between african-americans and white americans in receiving long-acting stimulant drug treatment for ADHD is
differences in drug tolerance
A female child is diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Later, as an adult, she is unable to hold a job and has very limited communication skills. Her case is:
uncommon; most people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder are males, and their symptoms usually remain severe into adulthood
The mockingbird gets its name from the fact that it often imitates the call of other birds, without conveying any particular message. A child who imitates others' speech without any sign of understanding it, MOST likely would be diagnosed with:
autism spectrum disorder
when a child with autism spectrum disorder says, "you want a drink," when he really means that he wants a drink, he is displaying
individuals with autism spectrum disorder may react with tantrums if an object is moved to a different part of the room. this is known as
perseveration of sameness
when a child with autism spectrum disorder jumps, flaps his arms, twists his hands and fingers, and makes unusual faces, the child is engaging in
according to one psychological view of autism, the awareness that other people base their behaviors on their own belief, and not on information they have no way of knowing, is not present in children with autism spectrum disorder. this ability is called
a theory of mind
research has shown that, during childhood, children with autism spectrum disorder are MOST likely to
use behavioral techniques at home
Imagine that I just stubbed my toe and cried "ouch". A child with autism spectrum disorder, when asked if I was hurt, said, "no," because she wasn't hurt. This inability to take the perspective of another is referred to as?
what statement reflects current research about the biological causes of autism spectrum disorder?
there are probably multiple biological causes
recent studies show that children with autism spectrum disorder are more likely than other children to have abnormalities in which section of the brain?
Studies of the use of cognitive-behavioral techniques in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder have shown that cognitive-behavioral techniques can produce:
long-term gains in school achievement and intelligence test performance
the LEAP program for treating children with autism spectrum disorder is unique because it involves the use of
typical children as models and "teachers"
What is the BEST educational treatment for a child with a serious level of dysfunction on the autism spectrum?
being sent to a special school that combines treatment and education
what person would be diagnosed correctly with intellectual disability?
one with an IQ of 69 having problems coping with life
intelligence test results should not be the only things used to determine intellectual disability, because intelligence test scores
don't indicate level of adaptive behavior
Fred has an IQ of 65 and cannot do schoolwork. He lives on the streets by begging, is usually dirty, and is always hungry. He would MOST likely be diagnosed with:
if you were trying to learn a new language and you could understand it better than you could speak it, you would be showing symptoms MOST like
A child does well in some school subjects. However, the only way that he can read is slowly, one word at a time. He must direct his gaze with his index finger. Even with great effort, he makes many errors and has poor comprehension. This is a description of:
A child displays normal behavior and intelligence, but she does not seem to be able to explain her actions and intentions as well as you would expect. If the deficit is severe enough, she might be diagnosed with:
a language disorder
mild intellectual disability is MOST common in what socioeconomic class
MOST cases of mild intellectual developmental disorder seem to be related to:
sociocultural and psychological factors
what has mild intellectual disability NOT been linked to?
children with multiple physical and neurological problems that seriously limit their functioning are MOST likely to be diagnosed with which level of intellectual disability?
severe or profound
if one knew nothing more than that the person with intellectual disability also had extensive and severe neurological dysfunction and physical handicaps, the MOST likely estimate of that person's level of intellectual disability would be
severe or profound
MOST diagnosed cases of down syndrome are of the
trisomy 21 type
individuals with down syndrome
have the same range of personality characteristics as do those in the general population without down syndrome
an infant is diagnosed with a biological disorder. as she ages, her physical and mental conditions deteriorate steadily so that she loses vision and motor control, and, at the age of 3, she dies. most likely, she was suffering from
an iodine deficiency in the diet of a pregnant woman may lead to a condition in which the baby has a dwarf-like appearance and a defective thyroid gland. this disorder is called
Anoxia, one possible source of intellectual developmental disorder, involves brain damage resulting from:
lack of oxygen during or after delivery
in poor inner-city neighborhoods, children sometimes eat pain that is flaking off walls. this can sometimes lead to intellectual disability due to
MOST children with intellectual disability live
a woman is in a facility for those with intellectual disability. she has her own apartment, dresses herself, and goes to the dining room, where she orders breakfast off a menu. she then goes to work in a sheltered workshop. at the end of the day, she goes home to her apartment and gets ready for dinner. this arrangement is part of
a normalization program
the percentage of the US population today aged 65 and older is
about 13 percent
an individual seeking help from a geropsychologist is MOST likely
among the "oldest old," [those who are older than 95 years old], the MOST common concern is
a fear of losing mental abilities
an individual is extremely sad, can't sleep well, and experiences very low, and decreasing, self-esteem. these are features of depression among
both the elderly and the young
compared to younger people, those older than 65 are
less likely to experience depression if not living in a nursing home and about as likely to experience depression if living in a nursing home
an elderly individual has just been diagnosed with depression. in the future, that individual would be expected to
recover more slowly than average for both injuries and illnesses
regarding treatment of depression in the elderly, studies show that
drug treatments may need to be altered because drugs are broken down differently in the older body
to date, research shows that anxiety among the elderly is related to
as people age, the incidence of alcohol abuse and other forms of substance abuse
survey research shows that alcohol-related disorders affect about
5 percent of the elderly, more often men
those who begin unhealthy drinking patterns later in life typically begin as a response to
negative events and pressures of growing older
a particular problem found MORE often in the elderly that is related to substance abuse is
misuse of prescription drugs
approximately what proportion of nursing home residents is receiving antipsychotic drugs?
among the elderly, psychotic cognitive symptoms are usually due to
delirium and neurocognitive disorders
an elderly person who believes falsely that others are conspiring against her, cheating her, or spying on her and who behaves in angry, irritable, and depressed ways is exhibiting
a delusional disorder
what percentage of the elderly now use facebook?
an 80 year old hospitalized individual is recovering from surgery but now has gotten an infection. over the course of a few days, the person shows increasing confusion and consistently misinterprets what others are trying to communicate. the MOST probable diagnosis for this condition would be
Of 100 typical elderly patients entering a hospital for a general medical condition, about how many would initially be diagnosed with delirium, and about how many more would develop delirium while in the hospital (in that order)?
10 percent; 10 percent
an individual with alzheimer's disease is able to function independently. the MOST appropriate label for this person's condition is
mild neurocognitive disorder
an individual with alzheimer's disease is no longer able to function independently. the MOST appropriate diagnosis for this person's condition is
major neurocognitive disorder
about how many new cases of alzheimer's disease occur each year?
the MOST frequent cause of neurocognitive disorder in the elderly is
"grandma is 65 years old, and there's no sign of neurocognitive disorder," says a friend of yours. your MOST accurate reply is
that's wonderful -- about 1 to 2 percent of people that age do have signs of neurocognitive disorder
about 17 percent of individuals with alzheimer's disease also experience
major depressive disorder
early symptoms of alzheimer's disease include
denial of symptoms
with alzheimer's disease, physical health usually
declines less rapidly than mental health
alzheimer's disease is diagnosed on the basis of
neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques evident at autopsy
sphere-shaped deposits of a small molecule in spaces between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with alzheimer's disease are called
a person who has alzheimer's, although there is no family history of the disease, is said to be experiencing
a person who has an excess of plaques due to alzheimer's would be likely to have
cell breakdown and neuron death
research on the cause of alzheimer's disease has led to the conclusion that
there appears to be a significant hereditary component, but this does not fully explain its onset
you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with long-term memory
a person with alzheimer's disease shows decreased brain activity in the diencephalon. this decreased activity should be related to
no change in the function of short-term memory but problems in the conversion of short-term memories to long-term memories
a person has normal acetylcholine and glutamate activity. if that person is suspected of having alzheimer's disease, one might look next for
an imbalance in the breakdown of calcium in the brain
what generally happens in the thalamus and the hypothalamus of an individual with alzheimer's disease?
selected neurons die
in people with alzheimer's disease, memory problems appear to be caused by disruption of the production of
The fact that Alzheimer's disease resembles Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease suggests that Alzheimer's may be caused by:
if you had a PET scan at a relatively young age, to predict your likelihood of developing Alzheimer's, you would be most disturbed if you had
reduced hippocampus activity
Lisa Mosconi and her associates administered PET scans to research participants to measure activity in the hippocampus. They found that participants with low hippocampus activity were more likely to develop neurocognitive disorders later in life. How accurate were their predictions?
more than 70 percent accurate for mild neurocognitive impairment and more than 80 percent accurate for major neurocognitive impairment
what disease involves degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes?
an individual suffering from a neurological disorder shows no evidence of infection or poisoning but experiences tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness. the MOST probable diagnosis is
some who has AIDS is also at risk for developing
what statement regarding the use of drug therapy to slow down the progression of alzheimer's disease is accurate?
drug therapy slows down the disease in patients treated early in the course of a milder form of the disease
To control occasional pain and inflammation, a person uses an over the counter drug containing ibuprofen. Interestingly, recent research shows that the person also may be reducing the risk of contracting what disease?
an individual who demonstrates a sever anterograde amnesia may still demonstrate evidence of
what has NOT been used as a cognitive treatment for alzheimer's disease?
increasing the capacity of short-term memory by memorizing strings of random numbers
"in dealing with alzheimer's disease, exercise is the key," says a friend of yours. what statement would be your BEST reply?
you're right -- exercise may reduce the chances of developing alzheimer's, and it may help treatment if the disease does develop
one of the MOST frequent reasons for the institutionalization of alzheimer's patients is
because home caregivers are overwhelmed
what is an example of a sociocultural approach to treating alzheimer's?
what does the research show that nursing homes should do to meet the emotional needs of their patients?
let patients do what they want to do, so long as it's not harmful or disruptive
what is NOT true about the most effective long-term inpatient care for individuals with alzheimer's disease?
emotional responding deteriorates before cognitive functioning does
"triple jeopardy," as an issue affecting the mental health of the elderly, refers to:
being old, a minority member, and a woman
a partially supervised apartment, a senior housing complex for mildly impaired elderly people, and a nursing home with round-the-clock care are all examples of
the percentage of the elderly population living in nursing homes at any given time is about
if you do things during your life that promote physical and psychological well-being, you are engaging in a __ approach to aging
courts ask for mental health professionals to help determine if defendants are
responsible for the crimes they commit and capable of defending themselves in court
defendants who are actively hallucinating and experiencing delusions during the time of their trials are most likely to be
committed for treatment until they improve enough to defend themselves
a person who has been criminally committed has been
accused of a crime and sent to a psychiatric institution for mental health treatment
what must be true before a person may be tried for a crime and potentially found guilty?
the person must be capable of helping to defending himself or herself in court
if a person accused of a crime is found not guilty by reason of insanity, he or she is committed to a psychiatric facility for treatment. this is called
A man got into a fight and killed his opponent. When he went to trial, he had a mental breakdown, did not know where he was, and was unable to answer questions. He is likely to be sent to a mental institution because
he was mentally unstable at the time of the trial and unable to defend himself
the definition of "insanity" used in legal cases is written by
the version of the insanity defense that declares that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions if those actions were the result of mental disease or mental defect is called the
A man killed another man with whom he was fighting. At his trial he claimed that he did not know what he was doing because he was drunk. Under which "insanity" standard might he be found not guilty by reason of insanity?
A man beat another man nearly to death. In court the assailant claimed that he was forced to do what he did. He just exploded and was not in control of himself. Under which "insanity" standard might he be found not guilty by reason of insanity?
irresistible impulse test
An alcoholic got into a bar fight and killed his opponent. Which legal test would MOST likely have been used to find him not guilty by reason of insanity?
suffering from a psychophysiological disorder such as headaches, alcoholism, and substance abuse might make one eligible for an insanity defense under the
if a person with paranoid schizophrenia committed murder and was not able to control his or her actions and follow the law, that person would NOT be eligible for an insanity defense under
in response to a recommendation by the american psychiatric association regarding insanity pleas, current federal practice is MOST like the
the MOST common diagnosis of those found not guilty by reason of insanity is
The fact that lawyers can often find "experts" who convincingly argue both sides of a question suggests that:
scientific knowledge about abnormal behavior is incomplete and uncertain
the most common, and perhaps the most serious, objection to the insanity plea is that
dangerous people go free
currently in the united states, patients who are criminally committed to a mental hospital can be released
when they are no longer considered insane
You are a forensic psychologist testifying about the sanity of someone. The question that is hardest for you to be sure of answering correctly is:
was the defendant sane at the time of the crime
In the case of Foucha v. Louisiana, the Supreme Court ruled that the only acceptable basis for determining the release of hospitalized offenders is whether they are still:
some states have adopted a verdict of guilty but mentally ill. the sentence that must be given to those so convicted is
jail with treatment if necessary
if a person with a mental illness committed murder, but was convicted of committing manslaughter, that person probably lived in a state that had a
guilty with diminished capacity option
the current trend in legislation and treatment regarding people who commit sex crimes are are also mentally ill is to
require both punishment for the crime and treatment
recently states have begun to abolish their sex offender laws. among the reasons they are doing this is
racial bias can affect the application of the law
Given the changes in sex offender laws, the emphasis of concern appears to be swinging toward?
in the united states, members of racial minority groups, compared to white americans, are
more likely to be found incompetent to stand trial and more likely to be evaluated as an inpatient
the majority of criminals institutionalized for psychological treatment in the US are there because
prison officials decided they needed treatment
civil commitment is for a person who
has been forced to undergo mental health treatment
the aspect of state responsibility that promotes and protects the interests of individuals even from themselves is called
the principle of parens patriae (parent of the country) permits the state to make decisions that promote an individual's best interest. it has been used to support the process of
If parents go to a mental health professional and seek to have their son committed, and the mental health professional agrees and involuntarily commits the son without a hearing or the opportunity for the son to contest the decision, we know that the son is probably:
in addington v. texas, a young man fought being involuntarily committed, arguing that the standard for showing that a person is mentally ill was unclear and unfair. this case resulted in the courts setting a standard that commitment
requires clear and convincing proof
according to the us supreme court, the standard for "clear and convincing proof" is
75 percent certainty
in the past, people with mental disorders were less likely than those without mental disorders to commit violent or dangerous acts. why do we think that is?
many more were hospitalized in the past than are now
if you received two-physician certificates, you would have
been involuntarily committed
Monahan's research on the relationship between violent behavior and severe mental disorder shows that
people with severe mental disorders are somewhat more likely to commit violent acts than those without mental disorders
what does NOT describe how well mental health professionals predict dangerousness?
they are better at accurately predicting long-term than short-term risks of dangerousness
the wyatt v. stickney decision forced state hospitals to provide
if you are involuntarily committed, you have the right to request that your records periodically be reviewed to determine if it is safe to release you. this request is possible because of
o'connor v. donaldson
the focus of the protection and Advocacy for Mentally Ill Individuals Act of 1986 was to
set up an advocacy system to investigate possible abuse and neglect of the mentally ill
what is an example of the way patients' rights might interfere with patients' recovery (that is, an example of a time when patients' rights are not good for the patients)?
the right to refuse medication may limit a patient's recovery
Patients who perform work in mental institutions, particularly private institutions, are guaranteed _____ for that work.
The issue underlying the dispute between psychiatrists and psychologists about prescription-prescribing privileges is:
professional boundary issues
A practitioner has admitted a patient to a state hospital and has prescribed medication for that patient. The chances that the practitioner is a psychologist are:
moderate; most states allow psychologists to admit patients, but few states allow them to prescribe medication
compared to past years, what has changed in the professional roles of psychologists and psychiatrists?
some psychologists are able to prescribe psychiatric medication
what question is an attorney MOST likely to ask his or her jury specialist?
what approach should i take to get the jury to favor my idea?
You have witnessed a crime and are testifying for the prosecution. What type of question should the defense attorney ask you to invalidate your testimony?
one that uses inaccurate information in the question
a lawyer defending a client whose DNA evidence supports his innocence even though an eyewitness puts the client at the scene of the crime
has a good case if she introduces evidence about the unreliability of eyewitness testimony
what is NOT true about profiling?
profiling is realistically portrayed on most television shows
if a psychologist wanted to write a newspaper column on mental health issues in the community, what would that psychologist need to do to comply with professional ethical standards?
the psychologist would need to make sure the advice was based on sound research
the american psychological association's code of ethics states that sexual relationships between a psychologist and client are
prohibited under almost all circumstances
If Dr. Phil were a licensed psychologist, would he be ethically allowed to offer advice to people on television?
yes, as long as he bases his advice on appropriate psychological practice
a landmark california court case, tarasoff v. regents of the university of california, dramatically affected the right to confidentiality between client and therapist. this case led to the conclusion that
a therapist must break the obligation of confidentiality if there is a clear danger to a specific identifiable person
a therapist who broke confidentiality with a patient without the patient's consent because of fears that the person would harm someone else was acting according to the ethical principle of
duty to protect
the current code of ethics declares that a therapist should break confidentiality even without the client's consent
when the client or another person is threatened
in the workplace, psychological problems are estimated to contribute MOST to
if you were having marital problems that were affecting your work and your employer made mental health service available to you to deal with those problems, your employer would be providing you with
an employee assistance program
if you were an air traffic controller and your employer required you to attend a seminar on dealing in healthy ways with stress, you would be receiving
a problem-solving seminar
the type of system that many health insurance companies have set up to try to curtail expenses associated with providing treatment is referred to as a(n)
managed care system
what is the BEST example of mental health parity?
your insurance covers medical and mental illnesses equally
the preference insurance companies show for short-term mental health services, by default, favors
drug treatment over talk therapies
what method of non-face-to-face communication is a teenager LEAST likely to do with friends on a daily basis?
what opinion about participants in social networking sites is BEST supported by available research?
participants are likely to have increased levels of social support and close relationships
If you engage in excessive and dysfunctional tweeting, texting, blogging, and Internet shopping, you are in danger of developing a disorder called:
People who film themselves "cutting" and post the videos on YouTube may be diagnosed with a form of:
what is NOT a typical concern that psychologists have regarding cybertherapy?
there is a lack of demand for the therapies currently available
you are treating another therapist for a disorder. what is the therapist you are treating MOST likely to exhibit?
depression or anxiety
what statement is an accurate conclusion one can draw about the mental health field?
what mental health professionals know and can do outweighs what they do not know and cannot do
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