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Chromosome Structure and Function
control center of the cell
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes (hereditary material)
chromosomes in a cell that is not actively dividing/reproducing; less tightly coiled
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
two exact copies of DNA that make up each chromosome
chromosomes other than sex chromosomes
Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
human chromosome number
all body cells except the reproductive cells
specialized cells that are used in reproduction;egg and sperm; gametes
number of autosomes in human somatic cells
44 or 22 pairs
number of sex chromosomes in human somatic cells
2 or 1 pair; female: XX; male: XY
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes, one set from each biological parent (2N=46)
symbol for diploid
an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes and is a mixture of the chromosomes of parents (N=23)
symbol for haploid
homologous chromosomes; homologues
each of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes consists of 2 homologues w/ similar size, shape, and genetic content; each homologue is inherited from 1 of 2 parents.
The union of haploid (N) gametes to produce a diploid (2N) zygote.
fertilized egg (2N)
photograph of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
Protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin