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control center of the cell


threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes (hereditary material)


chromosomes in a cell that is not actively dividing/reproducing; less tightly coiled


area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached


two exact copies of DNA that make up each chromosome


chromosomes other than sex chromosomes

sex chromosomes

Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual

human chromosome number


somatic cells

all body cells except the reproductive cells

sex cells

specialized cells that are used in reproduction;egg and sperm; gametes

number of autosomes in human somatic cells

44 or 22 pairs

number of sex chromosomes in human somatic cells

2 or 1 pair; female: XX; male: XY


term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes, one set from each biological parent (2N=46)


symbol for diploid


an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes and is a mixture of the chromosomes of parents (N=23)


symbol for haploid

homologous chromosomes; homologues

each of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes consists of 2 homologues w/ similar size, shape, and genetic content; each homologue is inherited from 1 of 2 parents.


The union of haploid (N) gametes to produce a diploid (2N) zygote.


fertilized egg (2N)


photograph of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs


Protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin

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