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21 terms

Chromosome Structure and Function

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nucleus
control center of the cell
chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes (hereditary material)
chromatin
chromosomes in a cell that is not actively dividing/reproducing; less tightly coiled
centromere
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
chromatids
two exact copies of DNA that make up each chromosome
autosomes
chromosomes other than sex chromosomes
sex chromosomes
Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
human chromosome number
2N=46
somatic cells
all body cells except the reproductive cells
sex cells
specialized cells that are used in reproduction;egg and sperm; gametes
number of autosomes in human somatic cells
44 or 22 pairs
number of sex chromosomes in human somatic cells
2 or 1 pair; female: XX; male: XY
diploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes, one set from each biological parent (2N=46)
2N
symbol for diploid
haploid
an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes and is a mixture of the chromosomes of parents (N=23)
N
symbol for haploid
homologous chromosomes; homologues
each of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes consists of 2 homologues w/ similar size, shape, and genetic content; each homologue is inherited from 1 of 2 parents.
fertilization
The union of haploid (N) gametes to produce a diploid (2N) zygote.
zygote
fertilized egg (2N)
karyotype
photograph of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
histones
Protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin